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Lucian Blaga arta c numai valorile autentice ale culturii noastre, numai acelea care conin n ele un mesaj universal pot aspira s intre n patrimoniul culturii universale. n acelai spirit, Octavian Goga, n Fragmente autobiografice sublinia: Eu am crezut de la nceput n specificul naional, adic am crezut c nu se intr n universalitate dect pe poarta ta proprie. Am crezut n dreptul de a tri al valorilor autohtone ca o completare a principiului de universalitate. O hart cultural a planetei ar fi ct se poate de sugestiv n ceea ce privete nevoia de schimb a oamenilor, universalitatea istoric a culturii i civilizaiei, exprimat n multitudinea de arii i zone culturale ce au fost dezvluite de spturile arheologice i ar infirma, totodat, teza despre popoare istorice i neistorice, artnd c toate popoarele au o istorie cultural, se nscriu ntr-o arie cultural [Tnase, Al.1988, p. 257].

n termeni teoretici continund demersul nostru, din contactul dintre culturi sau dintre oameni de diferite culturi rezult o multiplicitate de microprocese de invenie, imitaie, ucenicie i adaptare a indivizilor i grupurilor aflate n interaciune, toate avnd la baz procese economice i sociale.

Deci, cultura va modela astfel indivizii dup chipul i asemnarea ei, comportamentul fiecrei persoane fiind parte a culturii sale. Coninutul culturii este dat de specificul fiecrei societi, de epoca istoric pe care o parcurge, de forele umane care guverneaz acea societate i de nivelul lor de dezvoltare cultural, moral, a sensibilitii. n cultur se cristalizeaz acel general uman care se transmite din generaie n generaie care permite, totui, nnoirea, schimbarea i progresul. ntre cultur i personalitate, cu fiecare generaie i cu fiecare individ va exist urmtoarea traiectorie:

cultur-personalitate-cultur.

Bibliografie Barboric E.,Onu L.,Teodorescu M.,Introducere n filosofia romn, Bucureti, 1.

Blaga L., Trilogia culturii, Bucureti, 2.

Bulgr G.,Cultur i limbaj,Bucureti, 3.

Evseev I.,Cuvnt-simbol-mit,Timioara, 4.

Noica C.;

Rostirea filosofic romneasc, Bucureti, 5.

CZU 821.135.09193Rebreanu Mititelu Oxana LIVIU REBREANU I ROMANUL BASARABEAN N ANII , - , ." ( ) 30- . . , , , . : , , , , , , .





SUMMARY The literature, the earth and blood - a Trinity which represents the people in the world.(Liviu Rebreanu) In the novel from Bessarabia 30th years alternate the traditional formula and modern structure. For these reasons for many moldavian writers style of rebreanu is a model for a novel writing. Therefore Dominte Timonu, Mihail Kurikeru, Sabine Velikan, Nikolai Spetaru, etc. borrow in their novels the models: themes, motives, situations, conflicts, symbols, characters, characteristic Liviu Rebreanu.

Existena unui roman basarabean nu arareori este contestat. i atunci, ce similitudini sau contingene putem stabili ntre Liviu Rebreanu i un fenomen inexistent? A-l raporta pe Rebreanu la romancierii basarabeni pare, la prima vedere, o ntreprindere mai puin inspirat i n mare parte inutil sau deplasat. Sugestiile lui George Clinescu ar fi ntr-un sens instructive. Judecnd romanul lui Constantin Stere n preajma revoluiei alturi de Rscoala lui Liviu Rebreanu, reputatul critic nota: n Uraganul sunt totui documente despre revoluia ruseasc din 1905-1906 i despre micrile rneti din Romnia, n 1907. nvlmelile brutale, psihologia gregar sunt mai la ndemn scriitorului.

Dar documentele nu construiesc o carte, ca apoi s afirme categoric: Comparaia cu Rscoala lui Liviu Rebreanu nu poate fi conceput din nici un punct de vedere [1, p. 762]. Firete, mijlocul cel mai sigur de a demonstra punctele de tangen ntre aceste dou romane ar fi realitile artistice de cert valoare, dar aceasta nu nseamn c romanele, fie i inegale ntre ele, ar fi lipsite de orice relaie organic sau sporadic. Fr ndoial, transfigurarea artistic a atmosferei rurale, a vieii boiereti i rneti, a mentalitii i psihologiei ranului, pasajele cu volupti i violene primare, precum i alte elemente ale realitii romaneti pot face dovada unor similitudini indiscutabile.

Pentru unii, un aspect al comparaiei l-ar constitui trecerea biograficului n imaginar, raportul dintre subiectul creator i subiectul empiric, cu att mai mult cu ct protagonitii romanelor, Titu Herdelea i Vania Rutu, sunt expresii artistice reprezentnd dou figuri celebre. Pentru alii un obiectiv al analizei comparatiste ar putea fi contiina nstrinrii, ce se face att de pronunat nu numai la ardeleanul Liviu Rebreanu, ci i la basarabeanul Constantin Stere.

Basarabia i Ardealul sunt dou margini ale romnismului, unde contiina de neam s-a pstrat pn mai ieri cu cea mai mare ardoare. Specificul naional, scrie L. Rebreanu, postulat al diferenierii pe care o rvnete fiece neam n mijlocul unei lumi n plin efervescen i emulaie, este creaia literaturii n primul rnd i, n general, a artelor. Literatura e filtrul magic care alege esena calitilor i defectelor unui neam pe un anume pmnt. Literatura, pmntul i sngele, iat trinitatea care reprezint o naie n lume [2, p. 232].





Romanul basarabean din anii '30 alterneaz ntre formula tradiional i structura modern. Din aceste considerente este concludent pentru mai muli basarabeni modelul rebrenian de construire a romanului. Dominte Timonu, Mihail Curicheru, B. Jordan, Sabin Velican, Nicolae Gh. Sptaru.a. preiau n romanele lor modelele constructive, teme, motive, situaii, conflicte, personaje sau caractere, toate acestea lunecnd nu arareori n pastie.

Mihail Curicheru, nscut n august 1910 n comuna Negreti din judeul Lpuna. Dup absolvirea colii Normale (1929) lucreaz nvtor n satul Chiperceni din preajma Strenilor. A semnat articole la coala basarabean i proz la Viaa Basarabiei. n 1938 public la Chiinu romanul n deal la cruce. n 1940 finiseaz romanul Fundul negru, manuscrisul cruia s-a pierdut. Dup 28 iunie 1940 colaboreaz la almanahul Octombrie.

Romanul n deal la cruce e pierdut, iar autorul, supus represaliilor, s-a stins din via n gulagurile staliniste, n 1943 la, Taiet. Revista Viaa Basarabiei, recenznd romanul, recurge nu ntmpltor la fetiul temei, ca argument al unei valori artistice: Dl Curicheru ncearc s ne descrie un fragment din viaa de la ar, dintr-un sat basarabean, pe o tematic rebrenist: doi flci rude, prieteni, care jur la o cruce din deal frie de cruce, iar unul din ei i ia angajamentul c o s pzeasc iubita celuilalt de altul, pn la ntoarcerea din armat;

ntre timp Ion, cel rmas s pzeasc pe Ileana, se ndrgostete de ea, ea de dnsul i o fur de la prini;

Petre se mbolnvete de oftic, moare Pe Ion l mustr contiina c i-a prdat prietenul i vrea s se sinucid la crucea din deal, dar Lenua l oprete, spunndu-i c trebuie s nasc;

vine vestea morii lui Petrea, a iertrii i dezlegrii de jurmnt.

Subiect popular, mediu, atmosfer din viaa de la ar, deci o carte popular.

Limba-i popular, sugestiv, mldioas, expresiv i popular face ca lectura romanului s fie uoar.

Ceea ce nu trebuie s-i ierte dl Curicheru este stilul puin ngrijit, unele expresii bombastice, moderne, dialogul pretenios pe care l pune n gura ranilor, romantismul i platitudinea unor scene, lipsa de coloare, de atmosfer basarabean a crii: prea multe comentarii, ideii directe, vdite ale autorului care puteau lipsi.

Ionic, Petrea, Lenua, Mriorica, Vasile Precu, Gheorghe, Vladimir, Anastasia sunt conturai, dar fr adncire;

cartea n-are aciune, nici un deznodmnt gradat, natural.

Dl Curicheru s-a grbit. Romanul, prin complexitatea de fenomene social-psihologice pe care vrea s le cuprind, s le redea, cere munc, experien n via i n scris [3, p. 122].

Revista Poetul, exaltat de acelai roman psihologic, dimpotriv, l consider bine dezvoltat, miestrit brodat, cu fragmente de un lirism rcoritor i remarc, ntre altele, transfigurarea reuit a sufletului rnesc, expresie a forelor naturale spiritualizate, nvalnic, n lupt crncen cu pasiuni i atavisme, puin dezvluite n scrierile noastre.

Aici e meritul dlui Curicheru. Voina de a-l introduce pe ranul basarabean n literatur i a scrie n limba lui, bine condus de un talent promitor [4, p. 10].

Tematica rebrenian consituie substana romanelor Pmnt viu de Sabin Velican, Pmntul ispitelor i Satele de B. Jordan, Dar anii trec, n drumul nostru, napoi de Nicolae Gh. Sptaru, Al nimnui de Dominte Timonu.a.

Toate aceste romane dorice, dac e s folosim terminologia lui N. Manolescu, nfieaz o vrst a iluziilor.

Lumea lor este omogen i plin de sens, ele exprim mentalitatea burgheziei n ascensiune. Eroii sunt virili, plini de un exces de energie, ntreprinztori. Valorile lor dominante sunt de ordin economic. Sexualitatea este o luare n posesie, e acaparatoare, ofensiv, masculin. Tragediile nu modific sensul pozitiv al lumii. Viziunile artistice sunt auctoriale. Viaa apare ca superioar i refleciei, i simirii. Naratorul este unul omniscient i omniprezent. Forma romanului este nchis, teleologic. Edificator n acest sens este romanul Al nimnui de Dominte Timonu. Scriitorul basarabean preia de la Rebreanu strategia debutului Motivul drumului e reluat i spre sfritul romanului, ca i n romanul lui Liviu Rebreanu Ion. ntr-adevr, cnd s-au urcat n cru, caii o pornir sprinteni, sltnd hamurile pe ei.

La marginea satului, drumul care duce spre ora, merge drept nainte, trece pe lng fntna lui Popa Ion din Puhoi i rzbate n vrful dealului.

Dar pe marginea satului, din drumul mare, cotete un alt drum, lrgit i drept, cu pomi pe ambele pri, care trece prin livezile i viile ranilor din Recea i duce pe lng conacul boieresc, pn dincolo de pdurea statului.

Pe drumul acesta Crior a observat, cnd cotitura se desface de drumul mare, un chip femeiesc, care avea o asemnare izbitoare cu chipul drag al Lizici [5, p. 121-122].

n Pdurea spnzurailor, biografia lui Bologa apare ca un eveniment de contiin, provocat de o traum grav. Este ns ea cu adevrat prezentat ntr-o alt manier, adic psihologizat? Decurge cam n felul celor din Ion sau Rscoala: Apostol s-a nscut tocmai n zilele cnd tatl su atepta la Cluj condamnarea. Pn s se ntoarc Bologa din temni, copilul a deschis ochii asupra lumii, mbriat de o dragoste matern idolatr etc. Nu poate fi vorba aici de psihologism, ct vreme personajul nsui i desfoar mintal propriul trecut, cum ne-am ateptat i cum se va ntmpla n romanul ionic. n locul unei rememorri, din unghiul subiectiv al lui Bologa, avem o reconstituire obiectiv. Ceea ce poate prea curios ns este c autorul regsete aceast perspectiv unic i nedifereniat tocmai cnd zugrvete interioritatea personajului, dup ce a tiut s exploateze varietatea psihologic a unghiurilor de vedere, zugrvind mprejurrile exterioare. n realitate n Pdurea spnzurailor este un amestec de procedee vechi i noi.

Retrospectiva se ncheie cu aceste fraze: Pe urm a fost la Curtea Marial care a judecat pe Svoboda Pe urm a venit spnzurtoarea i ochii comandantului i doina ordonanei, sub fereastr, care nu mai nceteaz deloc, ca o mustrare. Singurele elemente psihologice din aceste fraze sunt punctele de suspensie, care indic un anumit ritm, special, al gndirii;

la fel, poate, ca i prezentul ultimului verb, menit s actualizeze lunga retrospectiv, legnd-o de clipa de fa a naraiunii. Ele sunt curmate de cuvintele ordonanei: Domlocotinent, e trziu, vremea cinei Apostol Bologa deschide ochii, zpcit. Aici remarcm o inconsecven. Modul nlnuirii amintirilor, rezumativ i nepsihologic, nu permite interpretarea lor ca un vis sau un comar. Naratorul nsui le-a relatat detaat, pe un ton de informare [7, p. 184-185].

Unul dintre elementele eseniale ale analizei comparate este ranul, ca personaj principal al romanului basarabean. ranul din proza basarabean este de un conservatorism revelator, manifestat n toate formele de via.

Instinctul de conservare a neamului nu a fost puternic accentuat la toate pturile sociale. Dac celelalte straturi sociale n decursul veacului de robie s-au nstrinat, s-au mai rusificat n parte, rnimea, care fusese temelia neamului romnesc n Basarabia, a rmas neatins. Nu ntmpltor, mai toi prozatorii basarabeni Constantin Stere, Gheorghe V. Madan, Sergiu Victor Cujb, Paul Gore, Nicolae Gh. Sptaru, Ioan Sulacov, B. Jordan, Sabin Velican, Mihail Brc, Mihail Curicheru, Nicolae Popovschi, Elena Vasiliu-Hasna, Teodor Vicol, Dominte Timonu.a. - fac apologia ranului pstrtor de datini, obiceiuri i credine, cu o mentalitate strveche, uneori primitiv, ieit parc de sub timpul civilizaiei moderne. Etnosul i etosul basarabean au un fond profund autohton. Romnismul basarabean, afirm M.

Cimpoi, este conservator, cultivator de vechime i de rusticitate, de valori i sacralitate. Oamenii de creaie basarabeni sunt, ca i predecesorii lor, moldoveni din secolul al XIX-lea, pzitori fideli ai fondului etnofolcloric, pe care l opun noului formal. Conservatismul basarabean are, astfel, raiuni polemice, el fiind ntreintor de fiin naional, de continuitate spiritual romneasc [8, p. 7].

n anii dintre cele dou rzboaie conservatorismul basarabean, n literatur, se manifest cu precdere ntre smntorism i un naturalism autohton, adic de o esen regionalist, cu att mai mult cu ct un determinism al locului sau un regionalism latent se atest, desigur, n literatura tuturor timpurilor. Romanul basarabean se afl fa de romanul romnesc n acelai raport ca partea fa de ntreg. Pentru evoluia romanului basarabean din perioada interbelic asimilarea sau pastiarea modelului rebrenian a nsemnat o ncercare de sincronizare i adoptare a modelelor consacrate n literaturile din Occident sau Orient. Basarabenii au analizat romanul lui L. Rebreanu n contextul creaiei scriitorilor Emil Zola, Fiodor Dostoievski, Vladislav Reymont, Knut Hamsun, Ivan Bunin, Pearls Buck, Gheorghi Grebencicov etc. Dup ce s-a scris despre influenele literare asupra lui L. Rebreanu, trebuie remarcat c influenele lui Rebreanu asupra basarabenilor au fost copleitoare. Mai nti, n maniera scriitorilor basarabeni se impune modul de tratare prin tehnica pailor mici, cultul naratorului omniscient i omniprezent. La acestea mai adugm, desigur, caracterologia, tipicul, perspectiva obiectiv, culoarea local, existenele mrunte, determinate de un naturalism pronunat.

Bibliografie Clinescu G. Istoria literaturii romne de la origini i pn n prezent. Bucureti, 1986.

1.

Rebreanu L. Amalgam. Bucureti, 1943.

2.

Spiridonic M. Mihail Curicheru. n deal la cruce // Viaa Basarabiei. 1938. Nr. 6-7.

3.

n deal la cruce, Romanul domnului Mihail Curicheru // Poetul. 1938. Nr. 3.

4.

Timonu D. Al nimnui. Chiinu, 1937.

5.

Rebreanu L. Pdurea spnzurailor, prefa i note finale de Graziela tefan. Bucureti, 1976.

6.

Manolescu N. Arca lui Noe. Eseu despre romanul romnesc, Ed. a II-a. Bucureti, 1991.

7.

Cimpoi M. Fenomenul basarabean sub semnul psrii Phoenix // Caiete critice. 1994. Nr. 1-3.

8.

811.512.165373. Srf V.., , (Kiinev) TOMAY KYND YAAYAN GAGAUZLARIN ZAMANDA SOY ADLARI HEM SOKAK LAAPLARI Summary This article examines the contemporary anthroponymics of the Gagauzians from the village of Tomai, the Ciadr Lunga district of the Republic of Moldova family names and street nicknames of individual families, individuals or a whole kin (united by a surname) given in lexical groups.

As the research has shown, the Turkic layer both in surnames and nicknames predominates over the others the Bulgarian, Russian, Moldavian and Greek ones.

On the whole, the number of street nicknames of the Gagauzians from Tomai considerably exceeds the number of family names, because side by side with family nicknames there are individual nicknames having, as a rule, concrete, situational origins.

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Bnk gnd Moldova Respublikasnda Tomay adnda k biliner: Tomay hem Yeni Tomay Leova dolaynda;

Tomay ky adr-Lunga dolaynda. Moldova eniklopediyasna gr, Tomay ky, angs Leova dolaynda bulunr, 1694 ylda kuruldu [1, 624]. indiki zaman bu kd taa oyu moldovannar yarlar. XVIII-inci asirin sonunda XIX-uncu asirin balantsnda burada bulgarlar hem gagauzlar da yaardlar. Nogaylarn gmesindn sora 1809 ylda bu kyn yaayannar yeni bir k dzdlr, verip ona hep o ad (bnk Tomay ky adr-Lunga dolaynda) [2, 625]. Lzm slem, ki bilim literaturasnda bulrz kyn dzmesini iin baka haberlr 1813 ylda [3, 297], 1816 ylda [4, 344-345] hem taa baka.

Tomay toponimi, nic annadr aaratrc.V. Dron, sk baal Tomay antoponiminnn, angs bnk gnd biliner nic soy ad moldovannarn arasnda, anglar Moldovann poyrazdak dolaylarnda yarlar [5, 45]. Ama biz kaylz baka bir baklan, angs gsterer, ki Tomay kyn ad ekiler nogay dilin, neinki onun temelind durardlar nogaylar [6].

Bizim aaratrmamz aklr adr-Lunga dolayann Tomay knd yaayan gagauzlarn antroponimiyasn: soy adlarn, anglarn 1977 ylda yazl Pravda kolhozun ambar kiyadna, hem insannarn sokak laaplarn, anglarn statyann avtoru kendisi zaametinnn toplad [7].

Gagauz antroponimiyas trl aaratrclar meraklandrard. Rus etnograf V.A. Mokov ilk toplad, aaratrd hem tiparlad gagauz onomastikasn [8]. Bu temaya gr materiallar hazrlad filologiya bilgilerind doktor, gagauzolog G.A. Gaydarji. Onun bilim aaratrmalarn -- eklentisinind bulrz [9]. Bu aaratrmalar bk kolaylk vererlr XIX-uncu asirin sonundan bnk gndan gagauzlarn soy adlarn hem sokak laaplarn ry dinamikasn grm deyni.

Gagauz antroponimiyasn aaratrdlar M.N. Guboglo [10], S.S. Kuroglo [11], P.A. ebotar,]21[ G. Karanfil [13], V. Malev [14] anglar denedilr yapmaa gagauz adlarnn klasifikaiyasn, belli ettilr antroponimnerin etimologiyasn, gsterdilr antroponimika aaratrmalarnn rolnu gagauz etnogenezinin renmesind.

Ayr lzm nannamaa bilim kiyadn, angsn hazrladlar.V. Dron hem S. S. Kuroglo [15]. Avtorlarn toplanlm materiallar, arhiv hem dokumental materiallar seft belli ederlr gagauz soy adlarnn hem sokak laaplarnn leksika hem morfologiya strukturasn. Bu kiyatta ok antroponim verili, ama biz bulduk da meydana kardk l takm soy adlarn (deyelim, Tolkaov) [16, 124, 171], anglar diil baal gagauz soy adlarnnan. Bizim bakmza gr, nemliydir taa genitn aaratrmaa Tomay kynn soy adlarn hem sokak laaplarn.

Soy adlarnn oyunda trk temeli belli olr. Bu soy adlar kurulu z adlardan, anglarna -oglo / -oglu ( oolu) payc (Dim, Gan h. b.), nannk afiksi -l / -li / -lu (Sakal, Kirli, Topuzlu h. b.) eki, Dobri lafdzc afiksi -c / -i / -u eklener, angs insann zanaatn gsterer (Mandac, Tauki, Topu h. b.).

En bk soy adlarn blklerdn biri insann zanaatn, zaametini belli eder: Berber, oban, Dlger, Kazanc, Tauki / Tauku, Terzi, Topu h. b.

Lzm nannamaa soy adlarnn blmn, angs insannarn fiziologiya, kusurluk zelliklerini belli eder:

Balaban, Benni, olak, Yerebakan, Karabacak, Kele, Kvrck, Kk, Sakal, Topal h. b.

Tomay kynd yaayan gagauzlarn var taa soy adlar, anglar gstererlr soy, millet maanas: Arnaut, Bolgar, Bir bk blk dzerlr soy adlar, anglar kuruldu yada peydaland gagauzlarda slavn hem baka halklarn Vatav.

Bnk gnd Tomay kynd gagauzlarn arasnda 113 soy ad kullanlr. Taa sk bl soy adlar kullanlr:

Geecez Tomay kynd yaayan gagauzlarn sokak laaplarna, anglarn says taa ok, nekadar soy adlarn says. Kmzd biz yazdk 289 sokak laaplar.

Antroponimiya aaratrcs V.A. Nikonov yazd, ani soy adlarn renmesi primitiv uurunda bulunr. Taa sk onnarn leksika klasifikaiyas yaplr. Belli diil soy adlarn yeri btnn zamanda antroponimiya sistemasnda, onnarn funkiyalar, baalantlar baka antroponimnrnn [17, 248]. Bu laflar V.A. Nikonov 36 yl geeri yazd. Bnk gnd antroponim aaratrmas hep bu uurda bulunr, pek az yenilik var.

Dnn halklarnn antroponim sistemasnda aaratrlr sokak laaplarn (cognomen) maanas hem funkiyas.

Sokak laaplarn kurulma proesi usuz-kenarsz, ama kt sokak laaplar, anglarn kabletmi filan kiilr, baka kiiler verilmeer, storiyada biliner sade bir Vizantiya padiaa Konstantin V-inci peyorativ sokak laabnnan Kopronim (Fkc). Bl kt, pis ad vermilr ona cellatlk beterin politika dumannar.

Rusiyada biliner sade bir padiaa, angs adn tayarm. Bu ad verildi ona o zer, ani devlet zaametileri, boyarlar pek korkarmlar (yada korksunnar) ondan.

Bnnn-bn sokak laaplar aaratrclara meraklydr. Tomay kynd yaayan gagauzlarn sokak laaplar soy Topu, gerdi yaamaa kzn evin, onnarn uaklarna gerdi anasnn sokak ad.

En bk sokak laaplarnn bl sk baal klis ayoz ad Bu rnekler yakn sokak laaplar, anglar musulman dinin baal: Hac, Hac liya, Hac Mina, Hac Nikulay.

Gagauzlarn sokak laaplarnda nemli bir yer kaplr trk pay. O belli olr sokak laaplarnda, anglar insann duuma Pelin, Trup) osa kullanlan predmetleri (Cibr, Dingil, Kalbur, Kepekli, Kosor, Paa) gsterer.

Tomay kynd yaayan gagauzlarn arasnda kullanlr trl milletlerdn alnma sokak laaplar. Deyelim, Var sokak laaplar, anglarn Tomayda yaay Ayl adlarn etimologiyas kimi ker diil belli. Sokak laaplarn var konkret kuruluu, baalants yaamaktan nesoysa olulan, angs belli bir kiiy kaslr. Deyelim, Tomayda yaayan bir karnn dedesi pay ald Birinci Dnn cengind. Cenktn sora o kendi duuma kyn dnd. indiki vaktta bu kar sokak laabn tayer.

Blelikln, Tomay kynd yaayan gagauzlarn zamanda kullanlan antroponimiyas (soy adlar hem sokak laaplar) gsterer, ani, en ilkin, insan arasnda trl blkt sokak laaplar kullanlr, anglarn says taa ok, nekadar soy adlarn says;

ikinci, trk payndan alnma soy adlar hem sokak laaplar taa genitn kullanlr, nekadar baka milletlerdn (bulgar, moldovan, rus h. b.) alnma antroponimneri.

Lzm taa slem, ani biz sade tantrdk okuyucumuzu Tomay kynd kullanlan soy adlarnnan hem sokak laaplarnnan, anglar derindn taa aaratrlmad. Bundan baka, lzm derindn aaratrmaa Tomay kynd yaayan gagauzlarn yakn 200 yllk istoriyasn hem onnarn ruh kulturasn folkloru, adetleri, dili.

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7. Haberci van Srf, duumas 1941 y., gagauz, Tomay kyndn, orta spe. renmesi, adresi: Tomay ky, kolnaya sokaa, 32.

8. .. ( ) // . ., 1901. 2. . 27- 28.

9. Baknz: .. // -- . 11 500 . .:

.. , .. , .. , .. . ., 1973. . 603-611.

10. .. // . ., 1973. 2. . 84-92.

11. Baknz: .. // . ., 1977. . 180-188.

12. .. . , 1990. Baknz taa: ebotar P. Gagauz laaplarnn etimologiya szl // Ana sz. 2002. 1. (lerlemesi var).

13. Baknz: . // Trkbilim dergisi. Ankara, 2008. 16.

14. . // Tedgigler. Bak, 2007. 1.

15. .., .. . , 1989.

16. Hep orada.

17. .. . ., 1974. (Baknz taa: .. // . ., 1986. . 7-8).

811.111373:316. Starodub D.A., MA Free International University of Moldova NEW LEXICON OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ASPECT OF SOCIAL DIFFERENTIATION Abstract Dezvoltarea perpetu a societii, a tiinei i tehnicii, impune apariia n vocabularul oricrei limbi a numeroi termeni care s exprime noiunile i direciile acestei dezvoltri. Indiferent din care compartiment al vocabularului fac parte, toate cuvintele particip la formarea tezaurului lexical al limbii. In rile vorbitoare de limb englez, tendina de stratificare social i difereniere a limbii se amplific. Este important de menionat faptul c exist termeni noi ce caracterizeaz fiecare nivel al societii.

, , . . . , .

To define the restrictions on the use of the language units, it is necessary to consider factors of two orders:

substantial and functional. Obviously, the choice and the use are dictated, on the one hand, by specificity of value of language units, on the other hand, specificity of social interaction of communicants in various situations of dialogue [4,p.189].

By development of typology of the factors limiting the use of lexical units in various situations of dialogue, it is necessary to consider a regular model of a social differentiation of language i.e. its stratificational and situational use [4,p. 23]. Such parameters take place in the social status of the speaker, his position or role in the dialogue and the receiver of the speech.

Under the situational differentiation the situational variability of the relations of the participants are taken into account: forms of their local position, their attitude to each other, their position in space and time, sphere of communicative gravity, the generalized social situation, scientific, educational, religious and political activity [2, p.45].

In aspect of situational variability it is also necessary to consider intention of speaking (to humiliate, offend, to admire, etc.), that is a component of the purpose of the communicative act.

Depending on the roles of participants of the communication all situations of dialogue can be shared as symmetric and asymmetric. The situations are symmetric, when the participants have an equal social status, the same age, the same gender [2, p.45].

In asymmetric situations the speech of the communicants is more asymmetric, the explicit degree depends on the relations between interlocutors: they are more official. The higher the degree of expliciticy the closer are the relations between the interlocutors. Between two kinds of variability there is a close interrelation. As a rule, parameters of two kinds of variability work in a complex.

In a modern English-speaking society the tendency to social stratification and, accordingly, to language differentiation amplifies. First of all it is necessary to note occurrence of a plenty of the new terms nominating representatives of various strata of a society. So, in the 80th there was a term belonger the representative of the big social group of middle class, the adherent of conservative views interested in material comfort and stability. The given group cannot be considered in one row with gumpie and groups similar to them (compare, for example: rumpie, blupie, grumpy) as belonger covers various age groups, and unlike yumpies, representatives of the given social layer are deprived adventurism. Language of representatives of this layer is deliberately conservative [1, p. 67].

Though dictionaries do not give indications on the primary use of words in various social classes and groups, tests with native speakers prove presence of social restrictions on the use of new words in the English language.

N. Mitford shows the difference of a lexicon of representatives of the higher class and lexicon of representatives of the middle class and different social layers in England by the traditional examples: England vs Britain: vegetables vs greens;

sick vs ill;

spectacles vs glasses;

scent vs perfume.

The new words which appear from time to time in the higher class of the society show the development of the society: sharon (a lower-class girl of a rather tartly appearance), dial-a-meal (meal ordered through telephone).

In the frameworks of the middle class the use of the words beginning with , isolated of McDonalds (the American firm trading hamburgers) have the meaning inexpensive, convenient, standardized: McNews, McCinema, McLife, McTelecast, etc.

Last years the extremely active factor is the professional parameter. The increased professional differentiation of language is reflected in occurrence new suffixal element speak with the meaning language, characteristic for the certain professional group, slang (compare with already known lingo). For example: artspeak, government-speak, sportspeak, med-speak (medical jargon), education-speak.

During the last decades there were new spheres limiting the use of colloquial lexicon in a professional parameter. It is, first of all, the computer techniques, dp-speak a slang of users computers (.: machinespeak computer language);

video equipment: video-speak a slang of users the videoequipment: cablespeak a slang of workers of a cable television.

Frameworks of television slang limit words docudrama a combination of a drama with a documentary film;

Kidvid time for children's teleprograms;

prime-time the period of peak of teleprograms from 7 till 11 evenings (the most expensive time for advertising).

One of the factors, restrictions on the use of a word on a line of stratification variability, the belonging to the ethnic society is defining. So, in language of the last decades the whole synonymic row of the nominations naming the white person and limited in the use by frameworks of the Negro population was formed: blue-eyed devil, whitie, paddy, Mr. Charley, honky. All the listed synonyms are marked by a negative estimation on the side of the Black population of America. Among the white population offensive nominations for Negros are in turn used: houtie, Af, terr (derogatory terms for black Africans). Frameworks of the Negro population limit also a new synonymic row: dozen, signifying, woofing (a contest of exchanging insults directed against relatives, particularly against the mothers). Usually these words are used by Negro-teenagers.

Frequently some parameters work simultaneously, for example: task (an essay to write);

brunch (late morning meal combining breakfast and lunch). In all these examples concerning the slang of private exclusive schools for boys, such parameters of stratification variability, as social, territorial, age and sexual are coded [3,p. 45].

Frameworks of teenage age limit the use of such words, as to bliss-out (to experience intense bliss), to funk (to swing pleasurably to agreeable music), head (a drug-addict), to horse around (to break out laughing). Frameworks of people of middle age limit the use of a word teeny-bopper (a young person in his pre-teens).

As a rule, the gradation on age parameter is influenced with a social factor. So, expression Bee-Bop generation is used by representatives of the senior generation with irony in relation to the people who have born after war and whose life is easier [3,45]. Frequently the same subjects of the real world receive various names depending on age of communicants. So, the representative of the senior generation uses a word as refrigerator, wireless in value radio while the teenager uses accordingly fridge and boombox. For example: He'll pig out on whatever in the fridge, while listening to Ms boombox. (The Times, 2007).

Frequently the negative tonality of a situation in which words of similar type are used, is amplified due to inherent estimation of derogative suffix (in this case due to a suffix-ie which last years has developed new negative values). Compare with suffical element gate scandal which orders the use of the words containing it in situations of a negative tonality, for example, contragate (the scandal connected with confidential delivery of the weapon Nicaraguan counterexpert). Thus, words of this group are limited in the use on a line of situational variability.

Identifying words convenience-food, junk-food, fast-food which designate quickly prepared food, demand knowledge of the English validity of last decades. Fast-food designates hamburgers and other quickly prepared dishes in cafe of American firms McDonalds. Convenience-food, junk-food have identical denotative correlation - the tinned products (concentrates) which are not demanding long preparation at home;

however junk-food associates with food substitutes, and therefore in the communicative act this word is used with neglect in relation to the person who uses the tinned food (as a rule, he/she is the person standing on lower, in comparison with the speaker steps of a social ladder).

The inadequate use of the words similar junk-food, can cause the negative reaction For the correct use of predicate words with semi-suffix-athon, isolated from marathon it is important to know that its meaning is competition of any kind. Television personalities awaiting the start in Hyde Park yesterday of the Bikethon, a 20-mile cycle ride in aid of handicapped and underprivileged children [The Times, 2007]. Compare also:

readathon- competition on endurance in reading, swimathon competitions on endurance on navigation. Words of this group are limited in the use on social, sexual, age, and ethnic parameters.

Functional variability occurs in two dialectically interconnected directions: differentiation of language and its integration. When we speak about differentiation, we speak about a process of terminolization of common lexicon. At a semantic level terminolization correlates with the narrowing of value. So, such widely used common words charm, colour, truth, beauty have got terminological values in the nuclear physics. The most widely used suffix for formation of neologisms is the suffix nik. A new word Wuppnik appeared in the 60th. But it became widely used only in the 80th, (meaning a journalist employed by News International who has refused to cross the print union's picket line to work at the company's new plant in Wapping). The word is limited in the use by territorial parameter (British isles). The Wuppniks are treated with respect and sympathy by other journalists. (The Times, 2007).

By virtue of rich semantic potential the same words (sentence, word) are used in computer techniques for a designation of units of the information. Thus, the tendency to a terminological homonymy is observed. Chemists use a word analogue (synthetic chemical substance similar in function to a natural chemical);

in psychology the word flooding where it was fixed in new values a method of treating a phobia by controlled exposure of the patient to the cause migrated. From a rocket terminology the word burnout (total and incapacitating exhaustion) entered different spheres. For example: High rate of teacher burnout. (The Times, 2007). Many reports lawyers burnout after two or three years in practice. (The Times, 2007). A snipe posted on a wood fence near my Washington office warns of burnout. (The Times, 2007).

Sometimes the process of determinolization takes place. Thus, the word clinical, carrying associations of empathy, partnership of the doctor at bed of the patient, has got into the wide use in value cold, prudent. For example:

Trade statistics are studied clinically, crimes are solved clinically, football sides are even said to be destroyed clinically. (The Times, 2007).

Thus, determinolization confirms the tendency of integration of language units from various layers of lexicon on the basis of the common-literary standard. It is often used in the publicistic style. Among them there can be found the following neologisms: (citizen band) (a band of frequency for local communication) and CB-er (an owner or operator of CB radio);

apple U.S. sl (a citizen band radio operator);

ears sl (a radio set);

hammer sl (an accelerator);

boots sl (an illegal linear amplifier connected to a citizen band radio to boost transmission);

barefoot (within legal limits of CB radio transmission power). From the sphere of music such new terms appeared: to badmouth (to disparage), nitty gritty (practical details), cool (self-control), to get down to nitty-gritties, to lose one's cool, to blow one's cool. One of the vivid examples of the given type is the Apple or the Big Apple (a nickname for New York City), which came into the common speech through the social dialect of Negros-jazzmen which they used, since the 30th when they speak about a big city, esp. in the North.

Many words are perceived as new by virtue of that they are unfamiliar to general public though they can exist for a long time in a language of the certain group. When the dominating culture after the certain period of time any more does not find a word useful, it can return to a language layer-source or pass in other peripheral layer with the same or new value. The example is the situation where a central computer - a host in the current jargon - wishes to communicate with a variety of different types of terminal.

Thus, it is possible to speak about a complex dialectic interaction of pragmatics and semantics in aspect of stratification variability. The word, being used in some sociodialect or slang gets new value. In its semantic structure there appear new meanings pragmatically fixed in a concrete sociodialect(slang). Then after a while by virtue of the further pragmatical variation this word can enter a common layer of lexicon, having changed its pragmatical peculiarity.

As a result of interaction of pragmatical and semantic variability the new lexical units appear, i.e. units having connotations of novelty.

Bibliography 1. Arnold I.V. The English Word. Moscow: Prosveshchenie.1986.

2. Galperin I.R. Stylistics M: Higher School Publishing House.1985.

3. Hall E. Building English sentences. Bucureti: Teora, 1996.

4. Leech G. Grammar, pragmatics and politeness. Tokyo: The Rising Generation, 1985.

5. The Times, 2007.

81` 242 (478 - 22) Kpak UZUN D.F.

kafedrann redicisi DU, gagauz filologiya KIPAK KYNDN NSANNARIN LAFETMES Rezume In this artikle the phonetic, morphological, lexical peculiarities of the dialects of the village Kupchak of Comrat and Chadyr dialect are studied. Paying attention to the researches of the famous turcologists: A.N. Kononov, E.R.

Tenyshev and the own researches it`s possible to consider the parallelism between the dialects of the village Kupchak and the dialects of the Turkish language.

This article is made for the teachers, students, researches and also for those who is interested in the dialectology of Gagauzian language.

Dialekt dili klerd (kasabalarda) yaayan insannarn lafetmesi. Literatura dili s devlet uurunda, politikada, bilim uurunda, inczanaatta kullanlr. Literatura dilinin var aazdan hem yazmak formalar. Dialekt dilinin var sade aazdan formalar. Literatura dilinin var kendi normalar, kurallar, anglarn orfografiya kurallarnda, szlklerd bulrz. Dialekt dilinin yok maasuz normalar. Dialekt dili serbest, onun tradiiyalar, lafetmk maneras, zellikleri ihtiarlardan genler geer.

Komrat adr dialektin girn klerin arasnda Kpak kyn ayr bir eri var. Bu kk aaratrma ii Kpak kyn lafetmesini belli eder. Kpak kyndn insannarn lafetmesind trl zellikleri bulrz.

Fonetika zellikleri 1.ki aa vokallarn arasnda y konsonun dmesi:

) vokallan bitn adlklarn doorudak halnda: Moskvaa, kolaa, almaa, maazaa, sovraa, taftaa, slujbaa ;

b) iliin inkrlik formasnda: yapmaasn, koymaasn, almaasn, bakmaasn.

2. Uzun aa vokaln dnmesi uzun vokala: uaan un, kalpaan kalpn, kabaatl kabtl, aaada ada.

3. Uzun vokaln dnmesi uzun vokala lafta nnda niinda.

4. A vokal Y konsonun nnd dnmeer: taligaylan, paraylan, maazay, almay (bu yaz normas).

5. vokaln dnmesi vokala: bn bn, rkt rkt.

6. M konsonun ardnda L konson iidiler: damla, adamlar, tavamlar, kilimlr, zmlr, giimli, dilimlem, admlamaa. Komrat adr dialektin girn kalan klerind M konsonun ardnda N konson iidiler: damna, adamnar, tavamnar, kilimnr, zmnr, giimni, dilimnem, admnamaa (bu yaz normas).

7. F konson V konsona dner: vasl, varkulia, kavadar, lavetm, kava, trova, sarvo, sovra, kuvn. Esap alrz, ani lafetmekt V konson der, nnd duran vokal uzanr, lafn iki formas da kullanlr: sovra soora, kuvn kuun, kovrik koorik.

8. Lafn balantsnda H konsonun dmesi: asta, aber, arman, ayat, ayvan, aylak, aylaz, avez, aliz, oroz, oru, endek, i.

9. H konson F konsona dner laflarda ftr, fzl. Lafta tufla protetik F kullanlr. Komrat adr dialektin girn klerind bu lafn bl formalar kullanlr: tula, tuula, tufla.

10. Protetik H (diil kkl) kullanlr sade lafta holoy. Bl laflarda, nic : alma, armut, arpa, adet, ayna, alatlamaa, aydannk, odun protetik H kullanlmr.

11. Merakl ihalln sora formas sonra. Aaratrarkan trk dilinnn, esap alrz, ani burada metateza olr. Trk dilind sonra, Kpakta sorna. Bu olay ( metatezay) baka rneklerd d bulrz: gagauz dilind glmek, trk dilind gmlek.

Morfologiya zellikleri 1. Bnk gnd en dolu iliin indiki zaman dialekt formas Kpak kynd kullanlr. Bu forma, bizim bakmza gr, en dolu, en gzl (kalyrm, sanyrsn, toplany(r), inanyrz, geliyrsiniz).

Bn kalyrm geliyrim Sn kalyrsn geliyrim geliy(r) O kaly(r) Biz kalyrz geliyriz Siz kalyrsnz geliyrsiniz Onnar kaly(r)la(r) geliy(r)l(r) Bu eski indiki zaman formas gsterer, ani indiki ksa formalar, anglar Komrat-adr dialektind kullanlr, Kpak kyn formalarndan ekiler. Lzm slem, ani Kpak kyndn insannarn lafetmesind Y konsonun nnd I () vokallar, urgusuz poziiyada bulunarak, der: kalyerm, yatyersn, inanyerim, verye(r).

2. liin mutlak gelecek zamannda dolu formalar kullanlr: gelecm, bakacan, alacek, yazacam (bu yaz normas).

3. Gagauz dilind say kategoriyas lar, - lr, - nar, - nr afikslerin yardmnnan dzler. Kpak kynd kullanlr adln okluk says formalar, anglar gstererlr, nereyi (ang ayley, ev) neetleneriz gitm:

a) giderim malisinner, mamusunnara, lelsunnara;

b) giderim maligil, bulgil, lelgil.

Lzm slem, ani Komrat-adr dialektind bl forma kullanlr: giderim mamulara, babulara, lellara.

A.N.Kononov, aaratrarkan trk dilind say kategoriyasn, yazr, ani trk dilinin dialektlerind afiks gil ayled kiilerin, evcimannarn birliini gsterer. rnek: komumuzgile gidiyoruz (komuumuzun aylesin gideriz).

A.N.Kononov esap alr, ani afiks gil taa zoologiyada ku blmnerini, botanikada bym soylarn belli eder.

rnek: balk-gil-ler (balta kular, anglar balklan beslenerlr);

bakla-gil-ler ( fasl bmneri). [1, 399] E.R.Tenev yazr, ani afiks gil trk dilinin dialertlerind Erzurumd, Ktahyada, Sinopta kullanlr. rnek:

amcamgile gittik (amucann evin, aylesin gittik). E.R.Tenev nannr, ani bu forma azerbacan dilind d var.

rnek: Rstamovlar = Rstamovgil (Rstamov hem evcimannar). [2, 110] Leksika zellikleri 1.Kpak kynd kullanlr laflar, anglarnnan Valkane dialektind kar geleriz:

pita (Komrat-adr dialektind taler, tabla);

kayretli, kayretlenm (Valkane dialektind kaaretli, kaaretlenma);

kenef (Komrat-adr dialektind ayak yolu, (h)al);

slata ( Valkane dialektind urgu ikinci ksma der);

torlak (Komrat-adr dialektind plak).

2.Merakl rus dilindn alnm laflar: kartoli, morkule, kastrla, krivat, stol. Laf masa Kpak kynd kullanlmr.

3. Laflar dik (kaynanm yada kaurulmu yaan), kandak (kandakl yol), durcecik (uslu durr) sade bu kd kullanlrlar.

4. Laflarda maza, ftr, ktlon, ymak urgu ilk ksma der, lafta ollk urgu ikinci ksma der.

5. Dialekt laflarnnan kar geleriz kpakl yazcnn N..Baboglunun annatmasnda Allahn izinnn Burada bl leksika dialektizmalar bulrz: kayretli, kayretlenma. Lafn maanas saburlu, dayankl.

Allah ileri iin diil gnah biraz da zora kayretlenm(dayanmaa). Yada fayton kalgyer (atlyer, sarsyer kandakl (oymakl) yolda). Uak mararsa, Kpakta deerlr: kalgma krivatta (atlama).

Literatura 1. .. // : . , 1996. C. 399.

2. .. . .

, 2002. C. 110.

947.8 ZANET Todur Ana Sz GAGAUZLUK STORYASINA, KKLERN HEM KULTURASINA TRK DNNES EREVESNDN BR BAKI Yaklak 200 yln iind gagauz halk, trk dnnesindn kopup, ayr bir geopolitika istoriyas altnda yaada.

O istoriya hem geopolitika lzgerleri daatlar hem yok ettilr gagauzlarn taa oyunu. kiz yln iind gagauzlarn says 1 milion 200 bin insandan yaklak 200 bin dt. Cenklr hem geopolitika oyunnar milletimizi Balkannardan Basarabiyaya, Basarabiyadan da Sibiriyey, Kazahstana, Kafkaza, Ukraynaya, Braziliyeya, Argentinaya hem taa baka erler daattlar, aalklan hem asimiliya politikasnnan erittilr.

Ama bakmadaan buna, trk dnnsnn kulturasnn bir paras olarak, gagauzlar kendi folklorunda, etnika hem etnografiya zelliklerind, bu kulturann sedeflerini korudular. Bu oldu bakmadaan ona, ani zlrc yl yabanc ideologiya, din hem geopolitika interesleri gagauzlar bu kklerdn koparmaa savat, altt yaklatrmaa onnar (hem ok erd yaklatrd da!) slavn, grek, romn halklarn kulturasna hem adetlerin. Ama ruhta bu olamad!

nk ruh ana sdnnn, genetik aklnnan insanda yaradlr.

Bundan kaar, trl yalanc teoriyalar ortaya atp, gagauzlarn ba bulgar, ba grek, ba romn olduklar konusunu gnnk dartmalara kardlar. Ama haliz bilim adamnarn aaratrmalar bu konuda bk hem semiz bir nokta koydu.

lkin bunu yapt eh aaratrmacs hem istorii Konstantin REEK [1], angs urgulad, ani gagauzlar kumannardan (rusa kumannara , deerlr) ekilerlr. Kendi yazlarnda K. REEK sleer, ani ilkin kim buldu gagauz lafnda oguz yada uz lafna yaknn hem aklad onu var bulgar aydnnadcs Petko Raov SLAVEYKOV [2].

XIX-cu zyln sonunda gagauzlarn kkn hem etnografiya kulturasn aaratran rus bilim adam Valentin MOKOV [3] kayl olup K. REEKn fikirlerinnn, yazd: Herliilm gagauzlarn halk adna dnrsk, ozaman, nic sayr akademik Vasiliy RADLOV [4], onu var nic iki paydan olmasna bakmaa gag hem auz. Bitkincisi var nic olsun ksaltma aguz yada oguz lafndan, angs istoriyada bilinn uz, guz hem torki adlarnnan bilinn trk soyuna ad olarak kullanlr [5]. Ne der slem birinci gag element iin, o var nic olsun diiilmi gk, gk yada gok laf [6], angs aklr oguz halknn soylarndan birisini [7] (burada hem t dooru gagauz dilin hepsi evirmelr avtorun).

Eridir urgulamaa, ani indi artk btn trk hem dnn bilim kiyatlarnda gagauzlar taa ok Gk Oguzlar, ani Gk Trklr ad altnda geerlr.

Valentin MOKOV taa bir fikir ortaya karr: Demeli ki, btn bu aklamalardan var nic karar almaa ani, o halk, kimindi Orhon yazlar, rus letopislerinin torki yada uz halk hem gagauzlar hep o halktr. Onun ad Oguzlar trk yada torki adl bk bir halkn sad bir soyunun ad[8]. Esaba alarak onu, ani bnk gndn hi bir bilim adam, Valentin MOKOVun bu yazlarn p altna koymad hem da Orhon yazlar [9] Gk Trk yazlar olarak tannrlar, dooru olacek saymaa, ani Orhon yazlarnn alfaviti gagauzlarn ilk alfavitidir.

Bunun yannda urgulrz, ani Gagauz kendi saylar [10] (fralar) da varm. Onnar da diriltm lzm.

Gagauzlarn kkleri iin konusunu kapatarak, yok nic slmeyelim ne dnrmi bu i iin gagauz hem romn milletinin aydnnadcs, profesor protoierey Mihail AKIR: Gagauzlar lafederlr pak trk, l, nic lafedrmi eski zamannarda cml insannar, anglar ekilmi trk halkndan, trk soyundan. Gagauzlarn dili, laf taa asl trkedir, taa paktr Osmaniya trkenin dilindn, zer Osmaniyalar ok laf, ok sz almlar farsizlerdn hem arablardan. [11] Belli ki, gagauzluk bnk gndn korunmayaceyd, herliim istoriyada bizim kendi devletlerimiz olmayd. O devletleri var nic iki paya blm: 1) milletlerin bk g etmesindn kurulan devletlr hun devleti [12] hem gk trk Kaganatlar [13];

2) milletlerin bk g etmesindn sora kurulan devletlr ziyalet [14] (Karbunlu devleti [15], Dobruca devleti [16]);

Komrat Respublikas [17];

Gagauz Avtonom Sovet Soialist Respublikas [18];

Gagauz Respublikas [19];

Gagauziya (Gagauz Yeri) [20] avtonomiyas. Belliki bu srada durrlar gagauz devletlerin devletlik simvollar da: Milli Gimn, Bayrak hem Gerb [21].

Gagauzlarn devletleri iin yazarkana, esaba alarak gagauzlarn kklerini (ani KUMANNAR hem OGUZLAR hep o millet) eridir urgulamaa onu, ne bitki vaktlarda Dobruca devleti iin arheologiya bilimind z kt hem ne yazr bu konuda bulgar aaratrmacs Prof. Dr. Georgi ATANASOV: lk srada, bir pesiz kalr o fakt, ani halizdn kumannarn evlatboylar Sraimir, Balk hem Terter (Yoan = vanko?) hem da sek saabi olpan, ani vanko padiahl zamannda diplomatm, kurmular Dobruca devletini. Belli i, ani Terter da, Balk da ekilerlr anlm Terteroba kuman soyundan, angs taman 1240-c yln dolaynda Bulgariyey geer hem erleer orada. Diil lzm atlmaa ondan da, ani kuman beylerin rezideniyasnn ad, l deniln Karabuna Tuna blm, uyr Dobruca devletinin padiahlarnn rezideniyasnn Korvuna adnnan. [22] Bnk gnd gagauzluk kulturasnn aaratrmasn iki dalgaya ayrmaa lzm: 1) eski zamannar hem baamsz baklar (XIX-cu zylnda hem XX-ci asirin banda tiparlanan gagauzlarlan ilgili aratrmalar, hem da Sovetlr Birliin zamannda baamsz hem tarafsz bilimcilerin aaratrmalar);

2) sovetlr hem soializma vakd.

Haliz bilim almalarn p altna almadaan, isteeriz urgulamaa, ani ikinci dalgada gagauz kulturasn inceleyn bilim adamnarn arasnda vard onnar da, ani gagauzlara sovet [23], soializma [24], slavn, urum yada romn kaluplarn uydurmaa savaardlar hem indi da savarlar. Onun iin gagauzluk kulturasnn ok erleri aaratrlmadk brakld yada aaratrld salt o kertdn, neredn sora kurulu olan bilim dogmalar vard nic baaaa devirilsin. stmeeriz dem, ani gagauz kulturasna slavn yada baka bir yabanc milletin baknnan bakmaa halizdn yann bir i, ama vakt geldi konularn oyunu kendi i baklarmzlan hem trk dnns bilimin baknnan incelem. Bu verecek kolayn aktarmaa o teoriyalar, ani biz diiliz biz hem bizim kendimizin bieyimiz yok.

Belliki, gagauzlarn Basarabiyada kurulan folklorunda yada etnografiya kulturasnda kimi laflar hem yaamakta kullanlan terminnr alnm komu halklardan (moldovannardan, bulgarlardan, ukraynallardan, ruslardan) hem kuvet sistemasndan, ama onnarn pay halizdn pek aaz. Bundan kaar, iin kapal olan klerd, nic Ukraynadak Balboka [25] (1948-dn beeri eni ad Kotlovina) ky, ani kurulmu 1754-c (kimi kaynaklarda 1752-ci) ylda, folklor kalm l, nic o varm batan. Bu kyn folkloru, bir adada gibi, komu milletlerin basksndan korunmu. Burada bulunr gagauz kulturasnn o kat, nered halizdn pak, temiz hem korunmu bir folklor kalm. Var ok eski trklr hem maanilr, ani Basarabiyann kalan klerind yaayan gagauzlarn arasnda artk kalmam (o sa yok edilmi mi?).

kinci dalga aartrmalarda bilim adamnar, bulamrlar gagauz klerind o trkleri, anglarnn kimilerini V. MOKOV yann trklerdn alnma trklr blmn koymu. Yann sayrz o zer, ani herliim bu l olayd ikiz elli yln iind bu trklr kayp olaceyd. O trklerin oyunu biz 2006-c ylda Balboka (Kotlovina) kynd yazdk. Bu gsterer onu, ani o trklerd annadlan olaylar gagauz halk nezaman sa yaam hem kendi genetik aklnda korumu.

Bu kd savatk bulmaa o trkleri da (oyu din trkleri hem trklk dumann trkleri), ani son 60- yln iind sokturulmu baka klerd yaayan gagauzlarn folkloruna, ama bulamadk. Balbokadan respondentlarmzn hi birisi onnar bilmeerlr hem iitmemilr. Bu fakt esaba alarak, bir pesiz var nic urgulamaa, ani Sovet sistemasnn ideologiy blmneri kendi bilim adamnarnn almalarnnan, bu folkloru gagauzlarn fikirin sokmu. rnek olarak var nic getirelim o trkleri [26], ani ilk ker tiparlandlar 1959-cu ylda. Herliim bu trklr gagauzlarn haliz folklorunda olayd, onnar mutlaka V. MOKOV, A. MANOV, W. ZAJACZKOWSKI gibi bilim adamnar bulup, yazaceydlar. Ama bu olmam, zer yok olan ii yok nic bulmaa. Onu sad var nic yazp kaybetm da sora gen bulmaa.

Sanrz, ani geldi vakt hepsi gagauzlar tansnnar o folklor rneklerinnn d, ani aklrlar gagauzlarn haliz istoriyasn: kim Balkannarda onnara halizdn bask yapm, hem kim gagauz adamnarn kasabalardan kardp, kendisi ory gemi: Bulgar bizden bn asker alacak, / Alacak da ipka balkanna yollayacak, / Ardmzdan ok aneler aylayacak, / Bon varnallarn ba belal var. / orbaclar askersiniz dediler, / Varnamz bulgara verdiler. / Varnallar askerlini yapmaz, / Bulgarlara hi ta teslim olmaz [27].

Var nic salt amaa nein bnk gndn gagauz istorikleri bunun iin yazmamlar, bunu aklamamlar.

Baka bir i ta yaplr: kimi bilimcilr savarlar koymaa kola hem literatura kiyatlarna bulgariya gagauzlarndan A. MANOVun hem W. ZAJACZKOWSKIyin kiyadndan alnma sleyileri, yazarak, ani onnar Basarabiya gagauzlarn sleyileriymi. Ama bu i tutulmr bir sebep gr: rencilerin hem okuycularn analar bobalar, ddular-babular onnar bilmeerlr hem bnk gnd onnarn tarafndan lafediln dild o sleyilr yok.

Yokmu onnar Basarabiya gagauzlarn folklorunda z yl geeri da [28].

Analiz yaparak hem inceleyerk bu gndn kimi avtorlarn aaratrmalrn biz greriz, ani onnarn otu gagauz dilini bilmedn, gagauzluk iin azmaa savarlar. Taa da beter, plagiat yapp, biz aalemin yannlklarn bilim olarak vererlr. Deyecez, Valentin MOKOV fesleni yan olarak [29] evirer. Bu yannl hi dnmedn tekrarlrlar baka aaratrmaclar [30] da. Ama feslen halizdn rusaya olarak eviriler, sa gagauza naan.

Hepsi bu yannlklar hem falsifikaiyalar savatk doorutmaa eni kan Todur ZANETin GAGAUZLUK:

Kultura, Ruh, Adetlr [31] kiyadnn sayfalarnda.

Bu ksa bak toparlarkana isteeriz slem, ani gagauzlarn dooru istoriyasn hem kklerini var nic heptn aklamaa salt ozaman, aan bu aklamalarda n plana trk dnnesi erevesini faktoru koyulacek. Bunu yapmarsak hep karannkta, yalanclkta hem krlkt yaayacez taa eriyincasna kadar.

LTERATURA 1. JREEK Constantin. Das Frstenthum Bulgarien // Wien. 1891.

2. SLAVEYKOV Petko Raov (1827-1895), bulgar aydnnadcs, poet, folklorcusu hem publiist.

3. MOKOV Valentin Aleksandrovi (1852 - lm yl bilinmeer), rus etnograf, aaratrmacs hem lingvist.

4. RADLOV Vasiliy Vasiliyevi (haliz ad Fridrih Wilhelm RADLOFF) (1837-1918), akademik, bk rus trkologu, etnograf hem arheologu. Orhon yazlarn bulan bilim adam.

5. .. // , . . . ., 1904. s. XVIII.

6. Burada V. MOKOV l sslkay yapr: i .

. 1846 . 1. s. 11.

7. .. // , . . . ., 1904. s. XVIII.

8. MOKOV Valentin Aleksandrovi, Gagauz Benderskogo Uezda. (Etnografieskie oerki i material). // Tipogr. Central, Kiinev, 2004. s. 18.

9. Orhon yazlar (Gktrk yazlar yada Kktrk yazlar) 1889-cu ylda Orhon hem Enisey derelerin yannda talarda bulunan yazlar. Saylr Gk Trklerin ilk alfaviti.

10. . E. , . // Varna, 1938.

s.173.

11. CIACHIR Mihail. Besarabieal Gagauzlarn storias // Chiinu, 1934. s. 3.

12. . // , 1960.

13. . // , 2004.

14. . E. , . // Varna, 1938.

s.16.

15. CIACHIR Mihail, Besarabieal Gagauzlarn storias // Chiinu, 1934. s. 14.

16. . . , , XIV // , 2009.

17. FLMONOVA M. BK MAANALI OLAY. Komrat iftilr kalkntsnn 100-c yldnm tamamnand // Ana Sz Nr. 1 (488), 31.01.2006. s. 1, 4.

18. ZANET Todur. HALKIN STED BELL // Ana Sz Nr. 24 (34), 19. 11. 1989. s. 1-2.

19. ZANET Todur. BZD DA RESPUBLKA VARDI // Ana Sz Nr. 8 (483), 31. 08. 2005. s. 2.

20. ( ). Nr.344-XIII 23.12.94 // N 3-4 / 14.01.1995.

21. III // , 90 (6010) 24.07.1990. s. 1.

22. . DESPOTSTVO. , , XIV // , 2009. s. 61.

23. ..

// , , 1979, 2.

24. .., .. л // , 1983.

25. ZANET Todur. Balbokaya uzun hem yakn yolculuk // Ana Sz Nr. 2 (489), 26. 02. 2006. s. 1-3.

26. . // . . , 1959. s.38-39.

27. . E. , . // Varna, 1938.

s.169.

28. .. // , . . . ., 1904. s. 273-282.

29. .. // , . . . ., 1904. s. XVIII. , s.104.

30. KUROGLU S.S. XIX . // , 1980. s.100.

31. ZANET Todur. GAGAUZLUK: Kultura, Ruh, Adetlr // Pontos, 2010.

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