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Naira Poghosyan THE CONTENT OF COMMUNICATIVE LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE IN THE CONTEXT OF ESP. Susanna Asatryan CONSOLIDATION OF VOCABULARY THROUGH CREATIVE AND AUTHENTIC CONTEXT... .. .. ¨ Ņ.. .., .., .. () ................................................................................ .., .. Ʌ... .., .., .. ... .., .., .., .. . .. ȅ. .., .., .. Ņ.. - .., .. - ۅ. .. ........................................ .. ............................................................... .. ȅ... .. ߅... .. Ʌ... .., .. - ߅... .., .. ͅ... .., .., .. ȅ.. .. ߅.. .. ȅ .., .. Ņ. .. ʅ. .. Ņ.. .. ߅.. .. Ȼ .. ۻ.. .., .. Ņ -





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802(072) Naira Poghosyan, PhD, associate-professor Chair of Pedagogy and Language Teaching Methodology Yerevan State Linguistic University after V. Brusov Yerevan, Republic of Armenia THE CONTENT OF COMMUNICATIVE LINGUISTIC COMPETENCE IN THE CONTEXT OF ESP In knowledge society the content of the studies, the methods used and the requirements for an educators professionalism regularly undergo certain changes. It follows that in knowledge society the aim of education is not only to educate professionals for a certain field but to help students to be aware of cultural values, form human mutual relationship, collaborate, be open, adapt to the new situation, creatively express their ideas, accept responsibility and challenge.

The various existing definitions and classifications of the English language competence do not include the specifics of non-linguistic professional fields: like architecture, medicine, law, psychology, economics, etc. Therefore, there was an urgent need to solve the double-sided problem: how to bring studies nearer to professional activity and how to further an educators professional help for students in order to activate their purposeful and meaningful participation in the studies and to promote the development of students ESP competence so that prospective specialists could wholeheartedly express themselves and be competitive in the labor market.

Based on the thorough analysis of the content and development of general competence, professional competence, the English language competence and finally ESP-studies, as a separate branch of ELT (English Language Teaching), we can formulate the content of ESP competence, which will be a great help for any ESP teacher or practitioner in defining the ESP competence, its criteria, indicators for different professional fields. And finally it will help to make a description of competence levels;

design an ESP syllabus;

create a model for the development of students ESP competence, validate it and introduce into the studies.

Thus, ESP competence consists of communicative, intercultural and professional activity competences. Each of them consists of several sub-competences that interact. The development of ESP competence takes place in action and it is based on students experiences.

Widdowson gives the following definition of the communicative competence: Communicative competence is a set of strategies or creative procedures for realizing the value of linguistic elements in contexts of use, an ability of making a sense as a participant in the discourse, whether spoken or written, by the skillful deployment of shared knowledge of code resources and rules of language use [4. p. 240].

In the ESP field communicative competence can be composed of: grammatical competence (basic lexis, semantics, morphology, syntax, phonology and orthography), pragmatic competence (contextual lexis, language functionality, unity and continuity of communication), discourse competence (language exposure and the unity of text and situation), sociolinguistic competence (understanding of other cultures, register, accent, dialects and interaction skills) and strategic competence (verbal and non-verbal communication strategies and compensation strategies).

Nowadays communicative competence without awareness of cultural dimensions in language use is not complete. In language learning it is important to be aware of its cultural aspect, because knowledge about other cultures helps to learn a language and assess cultural values and peculiarities of the language learners nation.

Intercultural competence is referred to as an ability to see and understand differences in ones own and other peoples cultures and countries, accept them and accordingly react, in conversation and behavior treating people in a way, which is not offending, scornful or insulting to the members of other cultures. At the same time it includes the knowledge of ones own nation and culture, awareness of their values, their preservation and development.

In the ESP field intercultural competence implies attitude (inquisitiveness and openness, tolerance), declarative knowledge of cultural aspects (facts, concepts) and an ability to operate in different cultural contexts.

Professional competence is an individual combination of gained experience, attitude and abilities developed on the basis of learning which allows a specialist to think strategically, untraditionally implement knowledge, responsibly develop oneself in the field and creatively work in ones own profession.

Professional activity competence consists of cognitive competence (theoretical and practical knowledge of the industry), personal competence (communication abilities and social skills) and technologically-professional competence (creative and constructive problem solving, communication skills, cooperation)[2;

p.6].

The analysis of theoretical literature helped to define not only the components of ESP competence but also determine ESP competence criteria and its descriptors:

1. language use for professional duties (descriptors: mutual oral communication, understanding of a specialized pro fessional text, business correspondence), 2. professional thinking (descriptors: cooperation and creativity) 3. abilities of intercultural communication (descriptors: openness and understanding), as well as to make the descrip tion of ESP competence levels[2;

p.8].

The description includes three competence levels:

A basic user (A1, A2) (a low competence level) can perform an activity if some help is provided.

An independent user (B1, B2) (a medium competence level) can perform an activity in similar situations implement ing previously acquired patterns.

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A proficient user (C1, C2) (a high competence level) can perform the given activity creatively [1;

p. 23].

Based on the ideas derived from the results of the analysis of curriculum and syllabus theories and competence theories, the content of ESP competence was constructed and validated, suggestions for ESP teachers were elaborated. The created model promotes students language competence and educators professional activity, and the language becomes a means of acquiring ones profession.

It should be noted in conclusion that only the ESP-course is capable of spontaneously promoting the development of students ESP competences, which is based on a needs analysis, the specific professional knowledge and skills, and the essential language content for the students wishes, interests and learning styles, and finally on the awareness of the content and ways of development of communicative linguistic competence of the ESP learners on the part of the ESP teacher.

Works Cited 1. Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment, Council of Europe, 2001. 293 p.

2. Ineta L. Development of students English for Special Purposes competence in tourism studies at tertiary level.

School of Business Administration Turiba, Latvia.

3. Tony-Dudley E. Developments in ESP: A Multi-disciplinary Approach. Cambridge University Press, 2010. 300 p.

4. Widdowson, H.G. Explorations in Applied Linguistics. Oxford University Press, 1979. 274 p.

802(072) Susanna Asatryan, PhD, Associate-Professor, The Chair of Pedagogy and Language Teaching Methodology Yerevan State Linguistic University after V. Brusov, Republic of Armenia CONSOLIDATION OF VOCABULARY THROUGH CREATIVE AND AUTHENTIC CONTEXT A person's vocabulary is the stock of words and word-combinations they are familiar with in a language. A vocabulary usually grows and evolves with age, and serves as a useful and fundamental tool for speech contact. However, the words known and used by a particular person do not constitute all the words a person is exposed to. The following stages are underlined in teaching/learning vocabulary:

presentation or explanation, consolidation or retention, usage in communication.

Every word has its form, meaning and usage, The form of the word includes its pronunciation, spelling, structure and grammatical forms, e.g. Let's take the word teacher pronunciation spelling-t-ea-ch-er structure - teach+er grammatical forms - a teacher, teachers, teachers, teachers.

To present a word the teacher should introduce the learners its form, explain its meaning and show them its usage. The word consists of sounds in spoken language and letters in written language. So the teacher shows the learners how to pro nounce, read and write the words. In junior stage of instruction, according to the principle of oral approach the teacher begins with the pronunciation of the word, that is hearing and discriminating and then articulating correctly, and only after that learn ers read and write the words. In senior stage of instruction this sequence may be changed. The teacher may begin with read ing.[4] Besides the stage of instruction, it depends on what minimum the word belongs to: receptive or productive? If it be longs to receptive minimum and for reading only the teacher begins with reading, if it belongs to productive minimum the teacher begins with pronunciation. Here we introduce some vocabulary exercises, which are designed to form and develop the learners receptive skills, on the one hand, and their productive communicative skills, on the other(these exercises are based on classroom interaction and authenticity).

Exercise 1. The students are suggested a wheel of words and they should try to say which words combine with book and TV to make compound words.

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We start by showing students the wheel and then make sure that they realise that while book + case can make book case, TV + case doesn't work in the same way.

Students are put into pairs or groups and told to come up with the combinations as quickly as possible. They should do this without using dictionaries at first, and then when we go through the answers with the class, we can put up some of them on the board and ask students to check with their dictionaries to see if they are right. Alternatively, students can choose any three of the words and write a questionnaire to find out about people's attitudes or habits concerning books or TV.

Example 2: Word Map Focus: Houses, rooms, objects.

Word maps are an extremely engaging way of building up vocabulary knowledge as well as provoking students into retrieving and using what they know. In this sequence, the students are going to work on aspects of houses and the things in them. We start by putting the beginnings of a map on the board.

Students then come to the board and the word map begins.

We can now put students in groups, and allocate one room per group. They are given marker pens and told to add as many words as they can to the word map for their room. It will be entirely appropriate if they think they are in competition with the other groups to see who can find the most words.

The board gradually fills up with words. Students help each other by offering words they know but which, perhaps, other members of the group have forgotten. They can look for words in dictionaries and while we walk around monitoring their progress, they can ask us for one or two words they do not know (though if there is a game element here, we will have to be fair about how much help we give).

Once the task is complete (or as full as it is likely to be), we can make sure students can say the words correctly before going on to ask them to describe their favourite room at home or have a discussion about why people don't put televisions in the bathroom or fridges in the bedroom. We can give students a picture or plan of an empty room and ask them to decide what to put in it.

Word maps are sometimes used by teachers to show students how words group together. Getting students to build up their own maps by working in groups has the added advantage of making them try to remember some of the many words they know, while at the same time learning new words from their peers. Based on many-year experience in language teaching methodology, we do identify and evaluate the techniques, the realization of which effectively enhance the learners vocabulary acquisition:

Create vocabulary themes - Include the vocabulary, a definition and an example sentence for each new item.

Use technology to help you - Watching DVDs is a great way to help you understand native speakers of English. Us ing all the fancy options watching individual scenes can help make DVD use into a vocabulary learning exercise.

Specific vocabulary lists - Rather than studying a long list of unrelated vocabulary, use specific vocabulary lists to help you prepare for the type of vocabulary you need for work, school or hobbies.

Visual dictionaries - A picture is worth a thousand words. It's also very helpful for learning precise vocabulary.

-

Learn collocations - Collocations refer to words that often or always go together making communication more com plete.

Use a corpus - Corpora are huge collections of documents that can track the number of times a word is used. By using a corpora, you can find which words are often used together with target vocabulary words. [1] Vocabulary games - There are many games which are appropriate for use with collections of vocabulary items.

The following game examples are designed to engage students in class activities to improve and enrich their vocabu lary stock:

Example 1: Got It! Focus: Word recognition/enjoyment.

This game is designed to engage students with a list of vocabulary items which will be used in the lesson sequence which follows. It does not involve any guessing or complex mental processing. But, as a result of it, students see and hear a range of words - and have a good time doing it.

Students are put into groups of four or five, all sitting round a table. The teacher gives each group a collection of 20 30 words written on individual cards or pieces of paper (e.g. words associated with cooking, such as slice, chop, cut, frying pan, saucepan, dish). The students have to place the cards face up on the table in front of them so that all of them can be seen.

The teacher now reads out the words one by one. The task of each individual in a group is to try to snatch the card with the word on it. When they do this (before the other members of the group), they have to hold the card up and shout Got it!

Each student keeps the cards they have managed to snatch, and so at the end of the game there is a winner in each group - and an overall winner who has collected the greatest number of cards.

Got it! is an entertaining way of getting a class going. The words can now be used in a lesson about cooking, they can form the basis of a word map (see above), or students can be asked to look them up in dictionaries or use them in conversations or writing.

Example 2: Backs to the board Focus: Explaining word meaning.

In the following game, students have to explain the meaning of a word or phrase to one of their team members so that he or she can guess what the word is.

Students are put into small teams. In each team one member sits with their back to the board. The teacher now writes a word or phrase on the board. All of the group who can see this word have to explain what it means (without saying the word or phrase itself) to the team member who has their back to the board. The first student to guess the word or phrase gets a point for their team. The game can be made more formal in structure if the students with their backs to the board have to get their information by asking yes/no questions only, e.g. /5 it more than one word? Can you find it in the house?

Hidden definitions are especially effective if the teacher puts up words and phrases which the students have recently studied.

Example 3;

Snap! Focus: Word meaning This game is particularly useful for simple word-meaning recognition. It can be played in pairs or groups.

Each of two students has a pack of cards. One pack has pictures;

the other has words which relate to the pictures. The students deal their cards, putting down each card at the same time as their partner. When a picture card (e.g. a picture of a bird) matches the word card (bird) put down at the same time, the first person to say Snap! keeps the pair of cards. The object of the game is to collect as many pairs as possible.

Many games like Snap! have been on replicated CD-ROMs or online and, as a result, can be played by students working on their own. Figure below shows just this kind of activity, where the play er can use the arrows under the picture or the word to find the different options so that words can be matched with their correct pictures.

The memory game - Look at this drawing for five minutes. You are not allowed to write anything down. Then keep the drawing and answer the questions below.

1. What time was it?

2. How many cushons were there altogether?

3. There was a painting on the wall. Was it of a person or not?

4. Was there a television set in the bookcase?

5. How many armchairs were there?

6. Was there a rug in front of the fire?

7. What was on the coffee table?

8. Was the fire alright?

9. Name any animals in the room.

10. What was on the bottom shelf of the bookcase?[5;

6] Discussion - Discussion is also a productive activity that aims to bring real-life situations, debates and conversations into classroom.[3] Discussions, like role plays, succeed when the instructor prepares students first, and then gets out of the way. As J. Harmer states, to succeed with discussions, we should realise the following instructions:

o Prepare the students: Give them input (both topical information and language forms) so that they will have something to say and the language with which to say it.

o Offer choices: Let students suggest the topic for discussion or choose from several options. Discussion does not always have to be about serious issues. Students are likely to be more motivated to participate if the topic is television pro grammes, plans for a vacation, or news about mutual friends.

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o Use small groups instead of whole-class discussion: Large groups can make participation difficult.

o Keep it short: Give students a definite period of time, not more than 8-10 minutes, for discussion. Allow them to stop sooner if they run out of things to say.

o Allow students to participate in their own way: Do not expect all of them to contribute equally to the conver sation.

o Do topical follow-up: Have students report to the class on the results of their discussion.

o Do linguistic follow-up: After the discussion is over, give feedback on grammar or pronunciation problems you have heard. This can wait until another class period when you plan to review pronunciation or grammar anyway.[1] Here we suggest the following discussion activity to perform in class.

Divide the class into 3 or 4 groups, each group takes 2 pictures of life event and after 10 minutes describe by 10 sentences.

Besides group discussions it is very useful written interaction, as the learned vocabulary will become productive not only in oral discussions but also when it is practiced in written speech, e.g. the learners can be offered to write a short essay on Will the internet bring people of the world closer together? Actions speak louder than words. We agree? Surely, but sometimes words speak louder than anything else.

Thus, the conclusion is apparent: Vocabulary learning is a vital part of education. As part of the language arts, it is considered a core subject in formal education.

Vocabulary is the body of words that makes up a language, and the importance of vocabulary in speech cannot be overstated. Without a good working knowledge of words and their meanings, both written and verbal communication will be muddied or poorly understood. Communication is enhanced by knowing more words.

Thus, we cannot advance communicating in English or another language until the fundamentals of vocabulary are mastered.

References 1. Harmer J., How To Teach English, Pearson, Longman, 2010.

2. Pigg, D. "Choosing and Using Dialogues" in TESOL vol.10. September,1976, -www. hltmag. co.uk 3. Thornbury S., How to Teach Speaking, Pearson, Longman, 2010.

4. Ur P., A Course in English Language Teaching, Cambridge University Press, 2012.

5. http://coerll.utexas.edu/methods/modules/vocabulary/05/ http://worldteacher-andrea.blogspot.com/2012/09/teaching-vocabulary-eltchat-summary.html -

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j xj vj(xj) wj(xj) tj(xj) T 1 1 1 0 6 2 0 2 3 2 0 4 4 0 2 1 3 0 2 0 6 3 2 0 3 1 0 0 2 1 0 3 6 0 4 0 6 5 6 0 . 2 , x2 = 3, v2(1) v2(3), w2(1) w2(3), t2(1) t2(3). x3 = 3, x3 = 5. x3 = 1 , t3(1) = 9 = 7. .

. 3 4.

, n = F1 (T1 ) T1 1+0 2+0 4+ 0+ 6 1 v2 ( x2 ), w2 ( x2 ) t 2 ( x2 ) 0+6 0+6 2+6 4+ 2 8 5 3 2+0 3+0 2+2 4+0 6+ 0 6 3 1 . 4 3 X0 = (2, 3, 4), . 1 V = 8 + 4 + 6 + max {10, 8, 14} = 32.

, n = F2 (T2 ) 3+0 0+6 4+0 6+ T2 2+ 6 5 1 v3 ( x3 ), w3 ( x3 ) t3 ( x3 ) 1+2 7+ 7 13 12 10 8 0+6 2+6 4+6 6+ 3 9 8 6 4 6+0 9+0 6+6 8+2 10 + 0 12 + 0 6 5 3 0 -

, (. . 3 4), , , . wj(xj), xj = 1, , mj, j = 1, , N W1 W2 WM, xij = xj, wj (x j ) W i, j 1,, N, i 1,, M ;

[v j ( x j ) v j ( x j p j )] [t j ( x j ) t j ( x j p j )], x j 1,, m j 1, p j 1,, m j x j N min v j ( x ij ) i V j N t ( x ij ) T, i 1,, M.

j j , , . 2 : W1 = 6, W = 2, W3 = 0, (. 5) ( = 3) .

Wi xij vj(xij) tj(xij) Vi i j 1 6 1 2 0 3 2 4 4 2 2 0 3 2 3 4 0 5 6 0 2 2 1 2 0 3 2 4 4 2 3 2 3 2 1 5 6 0 3 0 1 1 1 3 2 4 4 2 3 2 3 5 6 0 X0 = Xr = (xr1, xr2, , xrN) V r W r 1min {V W }.

i i iM , n f n (Tni ) min v j ( x ij ), n 1,, N, 0Tni T j n Tni t j ( x ij ), j f n (Tni ) min f n1 (Tni1 ) vn ( xn ), 0 Tni T, i Tn Tn1 tn ( xn ), n 1,, N.

i i i , . 5, i = 1 . 6, 7.

-

, n = f1 (T11 ) T11 0 v2 x 3 t 2 x 0 0 2 5 2 2 4 0 3 1 , n = f 2 (T21 ) T21 0 4 5 1 v3 ( x ) t3 ( x ) 4 8 4 6 8 10 5 3 1 i 2 3. Vi . 5, , Wi Vi i = 1. , 0 = (2, 3, 4), .

[2-4].

, [5].

1. .. . . Saarbrcken:

LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2012. 340 .

2. .. // . 4. 1978. . 5659.

3. .. // : . 3-7. .: , 2007. . 25-26.

4. .. // . 2012. 6(42). . 6883.

5. .., .., .. (). 2012618720 // : . 2012. 4. . 656-657.

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, , , , , , . . 13 , ( 10 15%), . .

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