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AINTINGANDFABRICCOLOURSANDTEXTURES.heymaybevery simple yet highly meaningful notions. When combined in chosen proportions withinasinglepieceofartistsworkandthuspresented,theyunveilthemagicof theartofexpression:theyconveyvisibleorperceptibleMEANINGSreferringto the existence and awareness, to the fears or joys of being. And most of all, in THESE COLOURSAND TEXTURES, youcansee thedetermination tobecome involved not somewhere else but in the metaphors of the matter-right here, rightnow.Thegoalistoscourthismeltingpotofinformationandpointoutthe singleMEANING,evenifsymbolicorfluidinthecolourvalue.Eachparticipant intheevent,BIENNIALEXHIBITIONCOMPETITION,(afterall,therewere many works not selected by the Jury) manifests his or her commitment in this seeminglyabstractrelation.Therelationofopennesstoandcapacityforspecific signs and content which, to a smaller or greater extent, are revealed in each workpreparedfortheBiennialandinitstitle.Insomeworksthecontentreflects the perspective of consumerist reality, the magic of power, were all insist on making you happy, while in other works it is enclosed in delicate frames of intimate experience.

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For20years,notablebearerofvisualcultureattheuniversity,thecityandthe regionistheDepartmentofFineArts.Oneofthemostimportantpromisingdirections -22 . , 2012. . 2. ISBN 978-985-515-584- of the department is research and creative activity that takes place within the department's scientific theme: Art and the problems of contemporary cultural development:Theoreticalandpracticalaspectofforminganartist-educator.

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ʠ700- . ISTORYOFJESUSCHILDHOODINLITHUANIAN PAINTINGINTHE17th18thCENTURIES:

ICONOGRAPHICASPECT* The main aim of this paper is the disclosure of the general iconographic peculiarities of the childhood of Jesus subjects such as The Annunciation, The Birth of Jesus, Presentation of Jesus at the Temple, Adoration of the Shepherds, The Flight to Egypt and The TerrestrialTrinityinLithuanianpaintinginthe17th18thcenturies.The sourcesofbothpresentLithuaniaandByelorussiawhichhadbelonged toGrandDuchyofLithuania(GDL)territoriesandtheiconographyof separateselectedimageshavebeeninvestigated,however,thepiecesof art present Lithuania make major part of the latter. The number of remaining Catholic images of this theme both in Lithuania and in Byelorussiaisnotlarge.GDLwasmulticultural,multiconfessionalstate, the images ofJesuschildhoodhavebeen always popularintheart of Ortodox and Uniate art. Byelorussian and Polish art critics devote especiallybigattentiontotheinvestigationofUniateicons(forexample, MichaJanocha).However,thisinvestigationislimitedtotheCatholic traditionwhichwasdomineeringinGDLwest.

AtthePost-TridentperiodthepresentationofthethemeofJesus childhood diminished in Europe and Lithuania. It was determined by therapidspredofnewformsofdevotionandtheofficialdeclarationof Canon by the Council of Trent, sectioning theApocrpha, one of the main sources of iconography of the theme of childhood of Jesus.

Theologians have reconsidered the subject according to the New * .

-23 Š۠ɠɠ Testamentseekingtodisentanglethelegendfromtruthandhavecometo acertainconclusion.Theverybriefattitudeonthissubjectwasgivenby Jan Vermeulen (Molanus), Gabriele Paleotti, st. Charles Borromeo, st.

RobertBellarmineetc.Theseauthorshaveembodiedthevisualtheology

asthemainmodelofPost-Tridentineideology.Molanuswasoneofthe most prominent theologians, who has given to the artists clear and comprehensiveexplanationsonthesubjectofthechildhoodofJesus.

InBaroqueepochthedepictiontraditionofthechildhoodofJesus was supplemented with innovations, which were influenced by the requirementsofthenewperiod.Theapocryphaldetails,whichhadno connection with the Scripture were partly avoided. But they did not vanishcompletelyanditbecameclearthatabigpartoflegendscould bederivedfromtheOldTestament prophecies.

ImagesofAnnunciation to the Blessed Virgin Marydistinguished byspecialpopularityamongimagesofJesuschildhoodinLithuaniaof the17th18thcentury.Thespreadingofimagesoficonographictypeis relatedwithitstheologicalandliturgicalsignificance.Intheartofthis period two iconographic schemes were domineering. The dynamic Baroquediagonalcompositioninwhicharchangelannouncesthejoyful news noisily descending from the clouds is the most widely spread.

Blessed Virgin at that time is filled with the spirit of piety which is reflectedinherspiritualface,gestures.Thewholeoftheposturesand gesturesofArchangelGabrielandMotherofGodenablestoestablish thephasesofthedialogue.Themostoftendepictedmomentisthesecond and third phases of the dialogue, i.e. is the explanation ofArchangel Gabrielon theHolySpirit and humbleconsent of the BlessedVirgin.

These images are attributed to the group of historical-Biblical works whichisrepresentedbythepiecesofartpresentinPaaislis,Rokikis, Kvetkai,Janapol, Plateliai churches.The images ofthiscomposition werepopularintheartofWesternEurope,especiallyItalianBaroque.

The secondiconographic scheme in the context of art of Western Europewasless popular;

however,it spread ratherwidelyintheartof Poland and GDL. Renaissance balance is typical of the compositions, communicationofGabrielandMaryisquieter,moreintimate,movingly subtle. They more often distinguish by expanded theology and are attributedtothegroupoftheologicalimages.Aftertheanalysisofthese paintingsitbecameclearthatinPost-TridentperiodinGDLpietytradition theconceptionabouttheBlessedVirginMaryastheLordsfiancewas especiallypopular, this aspectwas oftenemphasized in thesubjects of -24 . , 2012. . 2. ISBN 978-985-515-584- Annunciation.KaunasArchdioceseMuseum,VilniusBernardineChurch, SkuoliaiChapel,GrodnoBrigittianMonasteryChurchimagesshouldbe distinguished.However,therearealsosamplesofAnnunciationdepicted intheinteriorwhichdonothaveadditionaltheologicaldimension:inthis aspectthepaintingofMosdisChurchisespeciallyexpressive.Asinthe iconographyofthesubjectthesignificanceofthetester,elementofinterior which acquired a strong symbolic meaning is very important, the RenaissancetraditiontodepictAnnunciationininteriorwaswidelyapplied inPost-Tridentperiodaswell.

Nativity, Adoration of the Shepherds. Duringtheanalysisofthe iconographicanalysisofseparateremainingimagesofNativityinLithuania ofthe17th18thcenturiesithasbecomeclearthatthissubjectwasoften included in the cycles of life of Jesus and Mary, at the same time the remainingaltarimagesarenotabundant.Specimensoficonographictype thereare inthecyclesof Paaislis (16761680), Jacob fromTykocin (16421649),ConstantinVillani(endofthe18thcentury),PetrusRozelin (17961801).Abeautifulspecimenofaltarpaintingofthe2ndhalfofthe 18thcenturyisinRumboniaiChurch.BlessedVirginMarywithJesusare the principal foci of the painting composition. The images of the 17th centurydistinguishby reserved Baroqueplastics, in the paintingof the endofthe18thcentury(cyclesofP.Rozelin,K.Villani)thetendenciesof academistic painting manifest themselves, however, in iconographic respectnosignificantchangestakeplacecompositionsinwhichNativity iscombinedwiththeAdorationofShepherdspredominate,inthepaintings ofthe18thcenturytheaspectofuniversaladorationismorepronounced, atthesametimethescenesofthe17thcenturyarequieter,theiratmosphere iscosier,thenumberofparticipantsisless,however,quiteoftentheyare more expressive. The specimen of Jacob from Tykocin cycle certifies thatinGDLimagesaccordingtost.BrigittevisioninwhichtheMother ofGodadorestheBabywerealsocreated.

In the subjects of Nativity three creativity levels enumerated in Golden Legend are reflected;

things (columns, ladder, hay), plants, animals (ox, donkey, sheep), people (shepherds) having symbolic meaning,however,ithasbeennoticedthatintheecclesiasticpiecesof artremaininginLithuaniaangelsdonotparticipate.Themotifsofthe ox and donkey which became an object of theological discussions in EuropeinLithuaniawerenotavoided,theyweremostoftendepictedin thesubjectsofNativitysometimes evenespeciallyoriginallyas inthe paintingofM.A.Palloni.However,incertainimagesatendencynotto -25 Š۠ɠɠ emphasizethemhas beennoticed,thesymbolofasheepasthefuture tortureofChristismoreoftenemphasized.Theobviouscompositional difference of the architectural space in which Mary and Jesus were always depicted and landscape space in which usually other event witnessesarecomposedistypicalofbothNativityandasitwillreveal further other subjects of Jesus babyhood especially Adoration of the Magi.AdorationoftheShepherdshasbeendepictedseparatelyaswell, howeversuchcaseswererare.

Adoration of the Magi.Bigcompositionalvarietyis not typical oficonographyofAdorationoftheMagiinthepaintingofLithuaniaof the 17th 18th centuries;

the subjects differ from each other by both compositional schemes and the interpretationof Mary withthe Baby, Joseph,Magi,massscenes.MarywiththeBabyinthecompositionsof thissubject,justasinNativityisalwaysthecentralpersonaroundwhom all the other participants of this event are grouped. There are the specimens of the 17th century iconographic type in Paaislis, Gardin BrigittianChurchcycles,ofthe18thcenturyinPrienai(endofthe18th century),Maironiai(2ndhalfofthe18thcentury),Karvys(2ndhalfofthe 18thcentury),Jonava(endofthe18thcentury)andotherchurchpaintings.

AticonographicaspectAdorationoftheMagisubjectisinmanyways relatedwithNativityandAdorationoftheShepherds.Similartreatment ofspace,inevitablytherearethecommonsymbols oftheeventplace, i.e.Bethlehemstableorbuildingruins,insomeimagesoxanddonkey remain,inotherpriorityisgiventothemotifsofthecamels.Iconographic detailsrarebothinLithuaniaandinEuropearefoundas,forexamplein M.A.PallonifrescoinwhichalltheMagiaredepictedaswhite.Inthe 18th century just as in Europe besides several figure compositions in whichtheprincipalcharactersandnotnumerousescortparticipatemulti planarespreadinginwhichtheatmosphereofuniversalityandsociality is moreprominent.

Presentation of Jesus in the Temple. The domineering motif of thesubjectcompositionofthePurificationoftheBlessedVirginMary orPresentationofJesusintheTempleisthefigureoftheheadpriestin the Lithuania of the 17th18th century just as in Europe as well most oftenidentifiedwithProphetSimeon.However,therearerarervariants whenbothofthemaredepictedseparately.AtthesametimetheMother of God contrary to the earlier discussed subjects of Nativity and Adoration of theMagiis not the central person here, however, Mary alwaysalongsideisdepictedintwowayspassingtheBabyorkneeling.


-26 . , 2012. . 2. ISBN 978-985-515-584- The position of humbleness, respect typical of her expresses the understandingofthespecialimportanceoftheevent.Perhapsaimingto vary the subject of Presentation of Jesus in the Temple, give to him intriguingdetailsthepaintingslikedtoexperimentwiththesecondplan motif of a woman with turtledoves, interpreting it originally and playfully.Thisiconographictypeismostoftencomposedinthecycles andeaselandmuralpaintings,itisrepresentedbythespecimenspresent inVilniusDominican,GardinBrigittian,Mstislavlcycles.Thepainting ofM.A.PallonicertifiestheinfluenceofRubensintheinterpretationof this theme.

The Terrestrial Trinity.TheHolyFamilyinChristianarthasbeen depictedinvariousways.ThepaintingsdepictingtheFlightorReston the way to Egypt were not extremely popular in the Lithuania of the 17th18thcenturies.InPost-TridentartalsoinGDLimagestheprototype ofwhichisReturnfromEgyptspreadwider. Inthissubject mostlyin nature background Mary and Joseph leading by the hand already adolescentChristhavebeendepicted.Atthesametimeanewgrouphas beensupplementedbytheGodFatherandunderhimglidingHolySpirit intheformofapigeondepictedonthetopusuallyaboveJesus.Such composition acquires additional strong theological dimension it is doubleheavenlyandterrestrialTrinity.Oneofthemostfamousimages ofsuchinterpretationinEuropeanartwaspaintedbyBartolomeEsteban Murillo(at about1681).FamousKalishmiraculous painting(2ndhalf ofthe17thcentury)belongstothethemeanalyzedinPoland.Oneofthe mostexpressiveimagesofthisthemeinGDLareinVilniusst.Teresa, Plateliai st. Apostles Peter and Paul, Krakiai st. Apostle Mathew churches.Traditionalcompositionistypicaltoalltheimages,onlythe petty iconographic details, body position differ. Many specimens of TerrestrialTrinitythemeofthe17th18thcenturieshavebeenpreserved in Gardin,Valkavisk District, Glubokoye and other churches. One of theimagesofthistypeisiniluvabasilicapainting(2ndhalfofthe18th century)inwhichtheHolyFamilyhasbeendepictedasisusualinthe images of heavenly and terrestrial Trinity: Joseph and Mary hold the handsofthetwelve-year-oldJesusstandingbetweenthem,fromabove HolyFatherpaintedsurroundedbycloudsandangelsisblessingthem, lowerthanhethereistheHolySpiritintheformofapigeon,itsraysare falling on Christ. However, the composition of iluva Holy Family painting also differs from the traditional treatment of the subject of Heavenly and Terrestrial Trinity: it is supplemented by the theme of -27 Š۠ɠɠ JesusamongtheexplainersofHolyWrit.Thegroupofthesepaintings overpassesthelimitsofnarrativeimageandisattributedtothosewhich have supplementary theological dimension.

Investigationsofarchivesourcesandremainingimagescertifythat inthecontextofJesuschildhoodthefollowingsubjectsweremostwidely spread:AnnunciationtotheBlessedVirginMary,AdorationoftheMagi andTerestrialTrinity.Theywerespreadinginbothaltarandwalland easel painting. Certain iconographic types, e.g. Nativity popular in Europe,wereextremelyrare.Theeventofnativityinecclesiasticliturgy isespeciallyimportant,sotherarityofeaselworksonthisthemecanbe explainedunlessbythefactthat duringthe Christmas holidaysinthe churchescribswerearrangedwhichweresufficientfortheneedsofthe Church and believers. Other subjects belonging to Jesus babyhood cyclePresentationofJesusattheTemple,TheFlighttoEgyptinthe sourcesisrarelyidentified,astheyallcouldbenamedastheimagesof the Holy Family. However, solitary mentioning of these subjects are alsofoundinvisitationsandinventories.Atendencythatinonechurch therewereseveralpiecesofartofthegroupofJesusbabyhood,asin thematicandliturgicalaspecttheyarecloselylinkedhasbeennoticed.

ThereinthealtarsofKaunasArch-cathedralbasilicatemplesince imagesofAnnunciation,AdorationoftheMagi,PresentationofJesus at the Temple have been mentioned, and in the main altar of Myras churchthereisabeautifulexampleofimagescombinationofNativity, JesusCircumcisionandAdorationoftheMagi.Imagesoficonographic typeofJesusCircumcisionaretherarestones.

Theaimofthepaperhasbeento analyzeandevaluatetheiconographyofthe Jesuschildhoodsubjects(TheAnnunciation,TheBirthofJesus,PresentationofJesus at the Temple,Adoration of the Shepherds and The Terrestrial Trinity) in Catholic Lithuanianartofthe17th18th centuries.

Images of Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary distinguished by special popularity in Lithuanian art of the 17 th18 th c. The spreading of images of this iconographic typeisrelated with its theological andliturgicalsignificance.Besides thementionedonesthefollowingiconographictypesofJesusChildhoodspreadwider:

AdorationoftheMagiandTerrestrialTrinity.Theformalanalysisoftheiconographic schemeshasrevealedthatinthesubjectofAnnunciationcompositionsofambivalent character were domineering. The first is dynamic Baroque diagonal in which the Archangelannouncesthenewsdescendingfromtheclouds,thewholeofthepostures and gestures of Gabrieland MotherofGod enables to establish the stages of their dialogue. The second iconographic scheme was less popular in the context of the BaroqueWesternEuropeanart,however,spreadratherwidelyinPolishandGDLart:

Renaissance balance is typical of the compositions, the communication of Gabriel -28 . , 2012. . 2. ISBN 978-985-515-584- andMarytakesplaceinquieterchamberenvironment,correspondingsymbolicmotifs give to the images of this type additional theological meaning: the Blessed Virgin MaryisinterpretedastheLordsLady.IntheAdorationoftheMagioneiconographic formulapredominatesinwhichthepositionofthesubjectparticipantsismoreorless constant.Nativityas in EuropeanartisunitedwiththeAdorationoftheShepherds.

Thedomineering motif ofthe subject composition ofthePurification of theBlessed VirginMaryorPresentationofJesusintheTempleisthefigureoftheheadpriestin theLithuaniaofthe17th18thcentury just asinEuropeaswell most oftenidentified withProphetSimeon.FlightorRestonthewaytoEgyptwerenotextremelypopular intheLithuaniaofthe17th18thcenturies.InPost-TridentartalsoinGDLimagesthe prototypeofwhichisReturnfromEgyptspreadwider.Inthissubjectmostlyinnature backgroundMaryandJosephleadingbythehandalreadyadolescentChristhasbeen depicted.AtthesametimeanewgrouphasbeensupplementedbytheGodFatherand under him gliding Holy Spirit in the form of a pigeon depicted on the top usually aboveJesus.Suchcompositionacquiresadditionalstrongtheologicaldimensionit isdoubleheavenlyand terrestrialTrinity.

Investigationsofarchivesourcesandremainingimagescertifythatinthecontext ofJesus childhood thefollowing subjects weremostwidelyspread:Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary, Adoration of the Magi and Terrestrial Trinity. They were spreadinginbothaltarandwallandeaselpainting.Subjectsofambivalentcharacter canbedistinguished:thosewhichdirectlyillustratethestorypresentintheHolyWrit, other written sources and those which have a more complicated theological level, additionalmeanings.

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Thearticlepresentsthemaintypesofuniformsoftheeducationalinstitutionsat thelateXIXbeg.XXcentury,itshistory,characteristicsandanalysisoftechnological structure.

-32 . , 2012. . 2. ISBN 978-985-515-584- Purpose:Totracetheoriginanddevelopmentstagesofuniformsinthecontext oftheformationof Ukrainianschooleducationandtheestablishment ofsocialand sportingsocietiesinUkraineatthelateXIXbeg.XXcentury.

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