«АктуАльные проблемы социАльной АдАптАции военнослужАщих и членов их семей киев - 2011 Под общей редакцией Владимира Рубцова, президента ...»
In all, it would seem that women are under-represented amongst the implementing staff and management of the Project, yet make up a significant number of participants in the course, of about 33% per class. It should be recalled that women make up an estimated 13% of the armed forces, or approximately 18,000 persons compared to approximately 20% in the USA and 5% in Norway. Women in the AFU provide the bulk of service support roles such as assistant adjutants and clerical services. Very few women have succeeded to positions as high officers;
only 1,202 women occupy these commanding positions, an estimated 2.9% of the total military. In this context, the participation of an average of 33% women in the courses is very strong.
This high inclusion arises, from the Project modifications of 2007 2008. Then adjustments made included a new focus that included the expansion of the retraining to include female officers (including the rank of Senior Sergeant) as well as family members.
Women are reportedly highly motivated and often take the risk of establishing modest, independent enterprises. Conversely, women Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей are under-represented in Project management and leadership. It is our impression that the Project is aware of this discrepancy but it is reflective of the demographics of the military, wherein men make up the larger proportion of the forces.
Nevertheless recognizing the problem now can lead to formulating practical mitigating solutions that can ensure increased female participation in management and oversight of the retraining project.
Finding As of 2007, this Project has begun a concerted effort to address women’s inclusion3 and to a lesser extent women’s specific interests in re-training. In this women are included in the retraining in significant proportion, both in their role as former officers and as family members of male officers.
The Project is now aware and concerned with women’s participation.
It stipulates that women are represented in the retraining classes in high numbers. However, the Project could give further consideration to women as active and valuable aspects of the management of the Project as well as at the implementation level. Apart from some areas (i.e. the Sevastopol Chamber of Trade and Industry,) it appears that the majority of those actually implanting the retraining activities are men.
Given the limited resources of the Project for monitoring of post training achievements, it is not possible to systematically comment on the achievement women have made with their re-training. Yet in the review team’s interviews with 37 participants, there were ample anecdotal cases of strong re-integration and employment by women. As it is not possible to asses how women actually benefit from the Project beyond this level of informal feedback the review team cannot assess the true value of the effect of retraining specifically to the need so of these women, nor which skills they are utilising and how these new skills are being adopted into their lives.
While women have been included in the Project, there has been less attention paid to gender in the Project. In accordance with the 3 Following the suggestion of the Norwegian Ambassador in Kiev, the Project began to include members of families in the re-training. For those years these represent 133, 125 and 113 person respectively.
раздел commitment of the Norwegian government in gender and development, gender issues are to be an intricate aspect of supported initiatives. In this project, gender has not been specifically designed into the original strategy, but incorporated as of 2008 through a relatively narrow definition. A gender analysis that explores the relationships, decision making processes and powers of the family, access to markets and so forth, has not been undertaken either in the design of the initial phase nor in its implementation. Consequently, there is little evidence of gender issues –as distinct from women’s activities- having been taken into account, despite the fact that Norad support have made efforts elsewhere to undertake gender analysis and integrate gender into business sector activities.
It is also worthwhile mentioning that as a result of the initiative by the Norwegian Project to include women and family members, both the NATO and OSCE retraining programmes subsequently modified their programmes to accommodate women and dependents.
Recommendations Fuller consideration needs to be given to the gender discrepancy identified above. This is especially important in consideration of the reported significant incidence of women’s high motivation to establish small business and become self-employed entrepreneurs. One immediate course of action would be to select past female graduates and incorporate them, with their life experience and achievements in the private sector, into the retraining Project - not merely as motivating examples but also as models of success that can be emulated, or examples of the realistic challenges and tribulations that women in the business world face in the Ukraine.
Women have begun establishing informal networks of friendship and support. This should be encouraged by the Project and institutionalised to the level that these groups might become more permanent features of the Project, helping other newly demobilised female Project candidates and dependents, as well as a means of potential advocating their position in the business world.
Within the context of the Project’s limited financial and human resources that, a more thorough gender analysis would benefit the design Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей and implementation of the Project’s future engagement. Given the strong partnership with education institutions it might be possible to support and fund academic support of such an inquiry through existing local, national universities to develop a brief yet succinct gender analysis of the Project. For example, in the business sector, what are the consequences on the household of the potentially increasing income disparity between the genders resulting from these changing employment and business opportunities?
Risk Management BUC has reported that they have never faced a profound risk or substantial challenge to the programme, though they acknowledge that in the start they used a significant of time to test and design their model. In particular, during this phase they learned the necessity of having the local civil partners (IFSA, League of Officers Sevastopol and AvanGarde) carryout initial assessment s and implement much of the pre-selection of candidates to ensure the participation of suitable and highly motivated individuals.
The current Ukrainian financial crisis is putting serious strain on the potential employment opportunities and these factors are rapidly changing as the economy remains insecure - especially in the relatively distant Crimea. At the same time BUC states that this volatile economic climate in the Ukraine also provides an opportunity for partnership with research institutions and businesses to develop in the Ukraine, taking advantage the mature managerial skills, a highly educated work forces and low labour costs.
As discussed above, the programme is dependent upon the charismatic engagement of representatives from civil society. This is particularly evident in the IFSA, the League of Officers Sevastopol and AvanGarde. While these are recognised as mature organisations with strong linkages to the relevant stakeholders in the programme and government, there is a risk that the individuals may be stronger than the institutions that they represent. Although it is beyond the mandate to valuate the effectiveness of these partners, the question is raised as to how the programme may be able to reinforce a sustainable and institutional development of these partners so that organisations can survive the individuals that are currently driving their efforts of engagement.
раздел Conclusions Our overall assessment of the Project is that there is considerable interest in this Project throughout the Crimea and the wider Ukraine.
The Project can count upon several achievements: its expansion in a sustainable manner;
its role as a model for other retraining programmes;
its partnership with public institutions and as a stimulus to civil society and the inclusion of women and family dependents among others.
Overall, the management of the Project is strong and very thorough.
Many of the managerial practices are collaborative and also highly collective and key figures from NGOs are motivated and dedicated;
as evident in the time they spend providing support and engagement.
The review team also understands that the process of management and implementation is learning orientated, with key participants increasing their skills in the process and the review team commends this practise.
Nevertheless, it is now time for the Project to begin a process wherein much of the management becomes further devolved to IFSA and other implementing partners, thus ensuring the Projects strengthening of civil society and national leadership.
The review team also concludes that given the nature of the one year cycles of project implementation, less attention is currently paid to assessing the long-term impact of the Project. In brief, the present focus is on activity implementation and the achievement of set results – which in turn distracts attention from assessment, impact and comprehensive sustainable strategies.
It is our strong view that the project is in need of developing an updated project document and strategy. The Project is currently based on the original proposal prepared in 2003 and modified in 2007. While this core has proved to be relevant and robust, there is need to have a more mature and developed strategy with a LFA that systematically identifies goals, objectives, outcomes and impact, in addition to articulating the specific activities and their respective risk and potential mitigations.
Given the various tiers of involved partners (BUC, ISFA, League of Officers Sevastopol, AvanGarde and others), it may be necessary to develop a structure with a nested LFA that links together the specific objectives of each partner. Differentiating between distinct yet Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей complementary objectives of the respective parties, should flow down through the nested LFA, so that higher-level task become the goals for subsequent subordinate plans and this process cascades as objectives become more specific and focused.
As discussed above, we find the Project is sound and responsive to the current demands. Nevertheless, in this context, the Project may be under pressure from the national government to expand too broadly and for the foreseeable future they should give this fuller consideration, with the possibility of, for the next few years, focusing on working with those effective partners in the Crimea and only to those presently expanded areas of operation in Kiev and southern Ukraine (without further expansion). The newly adopted regions of Southern Ukraine and Kiev should continue but with careful consideration to avoid overextending their resources and capacity. There is a risk of becoming too broad where it is clear to the review team that comparative advantage of this Project is the specific, targeted and focused initiatives.
To this end the review mission has identified what we believe are the immediate future considerations and actions MFA should give consideration to in the coming year:
• A continuation of the Project to build further upon its achievements • Increased financial funding to expand the numeric participation, but not necessarily its geographic extension onto other areas • Seed Capital to support select candidates from each graduating class • Encourage the Project to initiate studies of achievements towards the aim of hosting a regional (pan-CIS and other neighbouring states) conference in Crimea, on the retraining strategies, with the intention of promoting the this Project’s achievements and ways of ‘doing business’ • A gradual shift towards BUC having a decreased managerial role, and more of a partnership presence, providing technical and academic exper tise to the training institutions and bodies • Encourage the project to establish a LFA (or alternatively the use of outcome mapping) and timelines towards an exit strategy, to secure sustainability achievements раздел Global Recommendations In addition to those specific recommendations made in the document under the relevant sections of impact, effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability of the Project, the following global recommendations are provided:
- Continuation of MFA Funding. Based on the achievements and impact of the Project, the review team recommends that full con sideration be given to continue funding these retraining activi ties. Although there are complementary retraining programs run by both NATO and the OSCE, the Norwegian funded Project con tinues to offer a relative comparative advantage with its linage to BUC providing high level, attuned profession skills, exposure to boarder academic institutions and its forward implementation of inclusion of family members in re-training.
- Consideration to increase Project Funding. It is furthermore recommended that there be an increase of funding, with the intent of expanding the Project’s existing focus with established partners, rather then Geographic expansion throughout the country.
- Re-establish linkage with the Norwegian MOD- particularly in respect to mentoring and partnership: specifically the transfer able lessons of social adaptation by former Norwegian military officers.
- Log-Frame Analysis required. There is a need to develop a sound and effective LFA, with a series of nested log-frames, encompassing the necessary synergy of efforts amongst the vari ous partners of the Project. This initiative will require launching an LFA training workshop of partners. This event should concur with the annual workshop scheduled to take place in the project area this summer.
- Micro-credit grants (Seed Capital). It is recommended that additional project funding be provided by MFA towards intro ducing micro-credit grants to a select number of graduates as start-up capital towards establishing their own enterprise.
There is opportunity within this project to explore the possibil ity of introducing small micro-credit grants wherein within each Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей graduating class, two or three individuals could be sponsored with micro-grants of 1,000 to 2,500 Euros, ‘Seed-Capital’ towards launching self-entrepreneurial initiatives. Currently, options to loan start-up capital is difficult, with very high interest rates or often dependent upon using family funds or informal loans and many sound plans for starting small enterprises are not realised due to these limitations. BUC and IFSA has an understanding and familiarity with micro-credit financing initiatives and is in a strong position to work closely with select partners, to support their implementation and management of these micro-credit funding.
- Regional dissemination of achievements and experience.
Given the achievements of the Project and the exemplary model it has projected to the OSCE and NATO initiatives, priority should be given to both document and capitalise on these. Immediate first steps should be the preparation towards hosting a regional workshop on retraining initiatives in the Ukraine, with the intent purpose of promoting the BUC model to other contexts.
- Improvements to Reporting. It is recommended that reporting be elaborated to include three key components: (i) progress on activities (ii) evaluation of activities) and (iii) a detailed descrip tion of the activities implemented throughout year.
Lessons learned The Project clearly has demonstrated that retraining former military officers is a relevant and effective means of reengaging the military in the civilian workforce. The bilateral partnerships developed between Norway and the Ukraine has had real and perceived benefits for both partners.
This has also lead to directly contributing towards the success of social adaptation of redundant military officers.
On a secondary level, the Project has been more broadly perceived in the Ukraine community as a responsible and important partner in the provision of an essential service to the community. As a result, the Embassy has reported that those achievements have provided a degree of prestige and credibility of Norwegian engagement.
Furthermore the review team observed the following:
- Retraining military officers with skills for civilian employment has раздел show over the course of the Project to be a successful endeavour, when conducted in a civilian education intuitions. Furthermore, offering retraining opportunities to both serving military officers scheduled for demobilisation, as well as to those already dis charged from their service has proven to be successful.
- Women and family members (dependants) are an important element in the reintegration of decommissioning military of ficers. This expansion to include these two groups has been well received by the participants and can be deemed a successes, which in turn has be emulated by other retraining Projects (NATO and OSCE).
- The Project has provided a stimulating dialogue and benchmark of performance to NATO and the OSCE initiatives in retraining, and subsequently is closely monitored by them as well as by the national government’s office for Social Adaptation.
- The Project has had, in addition to its technical capability of re-training, also complemented the diplomatic dialogue of the Ambassador and the Embassy’s Charg des Affaires. Consequent ly, the Project has indirectly supported initiatives of promoting diplomacy and dialogue.
- The Project has had a broader strengthening and support to the institutional capacity of partners.
- The lack of a LFA has imposed limitation on the systematic moni toring of activities and outcomes. Nevertheless the up to date reports identify the broader quantitative achievements of the Project.
- Although the funding cycle is managed one year at a time, the flow of funds from the Project to IFSA and on to the universities and other implementing partners is effective and without prob lem or delay.
- The project monitoring is limited towards the effectiveness of finding suitable employment and social reintegration into the non-military society of the Ukraine. There is a need to increase the monitoring mechanisms of the project to compile a more comprehensive qualitative assessment of achievements of the former military officers.
Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей Annex 1. Terms of Reference Will be included in the final submission Annex 2. Inception Report Will be included in the final submission Annex 3. Reviewed documents - Report No. 13 to the Storting (2008-2009). Climate, Conflict and Capital. Norwegian development policy adapting to change.
Report No. 13 (2008 – 2009) to the Storting. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 13 February - MFA’s Strategic Framework “Peace building – a Development Perspective”, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. - Budget documents to Stortinget (20110-11) Proposisjon til Stortinget (forslag til stortingsvedtak) - Sknad om Midler til Pilotprosjekt Tilknyttet omskolering av Militrt Personell i Ukraine. 29 November - Annual Reports from 2003 through to - Budgets from 2003 through to - Cronos Audit Reports through to - So Big is a Norwegian Herring. Project Publication in partner ship with BUC, - Experience of Norwegian-Ukraine Cooperation in the Field of Social Adaptation, Business Education and Research. Collection of Materials. Kiev - Various communications between the Royal Norwegian Em bassy and the Project management - Ten years on the way to the civil society, IFSA publication 1998 - Application for funding from UiN to MFA for the project 2008 раздел Annex 4. Force-field Analysis Findings Key findings from four focus groups:
Driving Forces (positive) Restraining Forces (negative) Course certication provided enables Not enough time spent in practical participants to obtain the relevant application of theory documentation to start their own business or gain employment Gain new skills and knowledge Lack of available capital for business start up. Bank loans at 25% Increase the possibility of nding Not enough courses were provided in employment Exposure to professional instructors both Not all regions of the Crimea have access national and international to the training Understand legal and bureaucratic Bureaucratic systems dicult to contend aspects of business administration with when starting up a new business Networking and potential business Unstable political situation leading to partners found with other participants of uncertainty in policy aecting legal and the project administrative aspects of small businesses Increase in household income Limit of time to study when also working fulltime (applies to participants who have started training sometime after being demobilised).
Aids in transition to civilian lifestyle Taxing policy for small businesses Gives condence to start own business or Dicult economic situation to nd move into a new area of employment employment or new business start up Free education provided in a short intensive time period Exposure to IT Learning from European and Norwegian experience from overseas instructors раздел EXTERNAL INDEPENDENT END OF PROJECT SUMMATIVE EVALUATION OF ASSISTANCE TO DISCHARGED DEFENCE PERSONNEL WITHIN THE SCOPE OF DEFENCE SECTOR REFORM IN SERBIA FUNDED THROUGH THE NATO/PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE TRUST FUND AND IMPLEMENTED BY THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR MIGRATION MISSION IN SERBIA Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей раздел Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей раздел Assistance applications 31.12. Submitted 4370 percentage Approved 4304 98,5% Rejected 45 1,0% On hold 21 0,5% Cancelled 229 5,2% Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей раздел Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей Jan-11 OFFICERS NCOs Civilians Prof. Soldiers registered 2901 2 189 0 1836 679 321 5 assisted 2187 1 138 0 1481 360 191 2 percentage 75,4% 50,0% 73,0% 80,7% 53,0% 59,5% 40,0% 73,5% Jan-11 O fficers NCO s Civ ilians Prof. Soldiers wom en only total m en m en m en m en (99% civ ilian) assisted 2187 138 1481 191 percentage 50,2% 3,2% 34,0% 4,4% 8,3% раздел Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей раздел Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей раздел Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей раздел Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей раздел Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей раздел Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей Project overall budget analysis of 8,180,580 Euros as of December раздел Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей раздел Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей раздел Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей раздел Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей раздел Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей Number of respondents currently employed or in business (n=42) 2% 7% employed/bus No Retired 91% раздел How w ell is business going (n=35) 6% 9% Just started 17% bad 34% sufficient as foreseen better than expected excellent 23% 11% Are you socially and economically integrated into civ ilian life (n=42) 14% Yes No/not entirely 86% Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей Degree to which you fe el socio-economically integrated (n=42) 2% 100% 2% 12% 50-65% 46% 66-80% 81-95% 19% 96-99% 19% less than 50% Family life today compared to when in the army (n=42) 10% better same 50% 40% w orse раздел Social life today compared to when in the army (n=42) 10% 40% better same worse 50% How did you feel w hen you w ere discharged (n=42) 10% negative neutral 54% 36% positive Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей Did transition into civilian life prove difficult in your case (n=42) 40% 43% difficult neutral easy 17% Number of respondents satisfied with IOM/NTF services (n=42) 0% Very satisfied Not very satisfied 100% Overall quality of project services counselling only Dec. 2008 4,73 N/A Feb. 2011 4,89 4, раздел “At first I didn't know about the programme, they phoned me to advise about the opportunities, and everyone on this floor is very correct. I got counselling from PRISMA and NTF/IOM. I registered with PRISMA for attending training courses and when I decided what I wanted, I opted for NTF assistance and they counselled me with the business plan.” “I would not have started the business without them, I wouldn't have had the courage” “Very professional and to the point” “I received the answers to all my questions, sufficient time and information were provided” “They explained everything so they tried to help me find a job, gave me examples, so all was well done” “If it hadn't been for them (NTF/IOM) I wouldn't have begun. So I came for the assistance, but I realised that the coaching and advice was more important because that's where it all started from” “I felt at the time nothing would come out of it, when I heard about the project.
When I talked to the client advisor I realized I could do it, so without the counselling I would not have started this business with the current volume I have now” “I'm thrilled with the PRISMA and NTF/IOM advisors, they pushed me more than I believed in myself, and without them I would not be here today” “I wanted to find a job but had not clear idea. I talked to both PRISMA and NTF/IOM advisors and after discussing with both the options I realised that I wanted to open my own business” “What is really good is that I had the business but didn't see it as a formal business, and with the encouragement (from the client advisors) I realised it could be a full-time business” Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей Most important/valuable part of the NTF support (n=42) 24% 33% counselling financial all 26% other 17% Most valuable aspect of NTF assistance apart from counselling and financial assistance (n=14) 29% 42% other training caring 29% раздел what does NATO mean to you (n=42) 17% 33% Negative feeling Mixed or neutral positive 50% Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей раздел Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей раздел Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей раздел Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей раздел Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей выводы 1. Проблема социальной адаптации военнослужащих и чле нов их семей является актуальной и будет существовать до тех пор, пока государство не реализует всех своих обяза тельств, которые оно берет перед кадровым военнослужа щим на этапе подписания контракта.
2. Офицер-специалист с высшим образованием и опытом практической работы, заслуживает внимательного к себе отношения в период перехода от военной службы к дея тельности в гражданском обществе. Государство должно быть заинтересовано в рациональном использовании его рабочей силы.
3. Социальная адаптация офицера должна проводиться со вместно с его семьей. Как правило, увольнение офицера из Вооруженных Сил приводит всю его семью к состоянию «потери кормильца».
4. Основными составляющими социальной адаптации являют ся: психологическая реабилитация, медицинская реабили тация, оказание содействия в трудоустройстве, переподго товка на гражданские специальности (при необходимости).
5. Минимум за один год до предполагаемого увольнения из рядов Вооруженных Сил офицер должен иметь возмож ность получить услуги: индивидуальные консультации об особенностях трудоустройства;
оценку степени соответ ствия полученного образования и опыта практической ра боты требованиям рынка труда;
получить информацию о порядке и особенностях организации своей жизни на граж данке с учетом выслуги лет, состояния здоровья, места про живания и т.д. Офицер должен иметь возможность выбора специальности переподготовки и бесплатного получения рабочей специальности.
6. Все международные программы, действующие в Украине, не решают государственной проблемы социальной адапта выводы ции военнослужащих и членов их семей. Опыт выполнения этих программ должен быть использован при реализации государственной программы.
7. Только 17-20% выпускников курсов переподготовки напря мую связывают свою будущую трудовую деятельность с по лученной специальностью, но при этом все слушатели кур сов отмечают важность курсов для социальной адаптации в целом.
8. Важнейшей основой государственного подхода к социаль ной адаптации является создание условий для получения офицером и членами его семьи информационной, консуль тационной и образовательной поддержки при переходе от военной службы к гражданской жизни. Важен индивидуаль ный подход к каждому офицеру.
9. Социальная адаптация предполагает интеграцию бывшего военнослужащего в гражданское общество. В силу этого мероприятия по адаптации должны проводиться в граж данских учреждениях.
10. В зависимости от места прохождения службы и увольне ния военнослужащего необходимо применять различные подходы для содействия в трудоустройстве. В условиях военных баз и малых городов, где нет вакансий для тру доустройства, необходимо содействовать развитию семей ного, малого бизнеса и переподготовку строить исходя из возможности самозанятости офицера и членов его семьи.
11. В психологическом плане, важно внушить военнослужаще му, что его активная жизнь не заканчивается увольнением из Вооруженных Сил и сформировать у него активную по зицию в продвижении на рынке труда.
12. Международное сотрудничество в решении проблемы со циальной адаптации позволяет поддерживать высокий уровень решения задач, актуальность в глазах государ ственных чиновников, развивать международное сотруд ничество в смежных областях и обеспечить перспективу совершенствования системы адаптации Украины.
Актуальные проблемы социальной адаптации военнослужащих и членов их семей список литературы 1. Годовые отчеты Международного фонда социальной адаптации.
Киев, 2000 – 2004 годы.
2. Гречанинов В.А. Гражданско-военные отношения в Украине. Киев;
«Интеграция-К», 2002 – 348 стр.
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