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DESIGN AND EXPERIMENT STUDY OF ELECTRIC POWER STEERING SYSTEM BASED ON PERMANENT MAGNET AC SERVO MOTOR Li Hong-da, Liu Fengxian. RESIDUAL QUANTITY CALCULATION METHOD OF EV BATTERY AND DRIVING DISTANCE PREDICTION BY OPEN-CIRCUIT VOLTAGE DECAY Li Hong-da, Liu Fengxian. RELIABILITY INDEX ASSIGNMENT OF SMALL-CALIBER AMMUNITION AND ITS APPLICATION Jian Wang, Dewu Huang. -, .. .



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.., Ȗ .., .. DESIGN OF ROTARY AUTOMATIC ASSEMBLY MACHINE BASED ON PLC Jiao Zhigang, Guo Cean, Guo Qiuping PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF LOW COST MEMS INERTIAL MEASUREMENT UNIT FOR AN FPGA-BASED NAVIGATION SYSTEM Lei Wang, Shuang Li, Fei Wang RESEARCH ON THE INTEGRATED TEST SYSTEM OF DYNAMICAL BALANCE AND THE CORRECTION OF OPTICAL AXIS OF THE COORDINATOR Peitian Cong, Hui Han DEVELOPMENT OF STEP-NC BASED MANUFACTURABILITY EVALUATION SYSTEM Qilin Shu, Jun Wang RESEARCH OF PRODUCT FAMILY ARCHITECTURE DYNAMIC EVOLUTION BASED ON STRUCTURE SEMANTIC UNIT Shao Weiping, Hao Yongping, Zeng Pengfei RESEARCH ON PRODUCT CONCEPT DESIGN BASED ON FMS MAPPING MODEL Xingguo Ma, Bangchun Wen THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF UNIVERSAL INERTIAL SWITCH BASED MEMS Yongping Hao, Shuangjie Liu SIMULATION OF ORIENTED DENDRITIC GROWTH USING PHASE-FIELD METHOD Zhang Yutuo, Dong Hong, Wang Chengzhi APPLICATION OF ENHANCED GENETIC ALGORISM IN MECHANICAL PRODUCTS CONCEPTUAL INNOVATION DESIGN Zhihua YUAN, Zhijun WANG, Haiwei LI .. ¨ ¨ .., .., .. VI -

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SURFACE MORPHOLOGY EVOLUTION OF HIGH-SPEED STEEL INDUCED BY HIGH-CURRENT PULSED ELECTRON BEAM IRRADIATION Hui Zhao, Xiaohui Wang, Yun Yi STUDY ON POLY (ETHYLENE GLYCOL) ACTIVATION AND ITS APPLICATION AS CARRIER IN DRUG DELIVERY Jun Chang, Gang Li, Ji-cheng Zuo POLISHING CHARACTERISTICS OF CVD DIAMOND FILMS USING SUPER HIGH SPEED POLISHING METHOD L Zhou, S.T. Huang, L.F. Xu ALIGNMENT OF MICROSTRUCTURE OF CASTINGS MADE HETEROPHASE LEADED BRONZES Martyushev N.V., Melnikov A.G., Khudyakova S.A. ABRASIVE AND DRY SLIDING WEAR RESISTANCE OF UHMWPE-BASED COMPOSITES MODIFIED BY ADDING AlO(OH) MICRO SIZE FILLER N. Sonjaitham, S.V. Panin, L.R. Ivanova, L.A. Kornienko ISOTHERMAL OXIDATION BEHAVIOR OF ARC-ION PLATING NiCoCrAlYSiHf COATINGS ON CrNi3MoVA STEEL AT QU Jiahui, GUO Cean, ZHANG Jian INFLUENCE OF POLYPROPYLENE ONTO WEAR RESISTANCE AND TENSILE PROPERTY OF UHMWPE-BASED COMPOSITE T. Mandoung, S.V. Panin, L.R. Ivanova, L.A. Kornienko STUDY ON TUBE EXTRUSION TECHNOLOGY FOR SUPER-ALLOY INCONEL WANG Zhong-tang, DENG Yong-gang, ZHANG Shi-hong NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS ON DEFORMATION MODE OF THE PLATE UNDER UNIAXIAL TENSION Kadirova A.S., Knyazeva A.G., Sorokova S.N. STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF ROLLING TECHNOLOGY ON THE BROADSIDE FEATURE OF LASER TAILOR-WELDED BLANKS WITH LONG WELD SEAM Hao Changzhong , .., .., .. , .., .. - , .., .. VI -

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DESIGN AND EXPERIMENT STUDY OF ELECTRIC POWER STEERING SYSTEM BASED ON PERMANENT MAGNET AC SERVO MOTOR Li Hong da[1] Liu Fengxian[2] [1] Equipment Engineering College, Shenyang Ligong University;

Shenyang 110159;

China ([2] Information Engineering College, Shenyang Ligong University;

Shenyang 110159;

China Introduction At presentthe Electric Power Steering System (EPS)has such advantages as high efficiencyfast reaction ratesafe and no pollution when comparison with the traditional mechanical hydraulic Steering System. It is an inevitable trend and orientation in electric vehicle technology field[1-4]. The DC servomotor is now widely adopted to power the Electric Power Steering System (EPS). The Permanent Magnet AC Servo Motor (PMSM) has following advantages as compared to the DC servomotor(1) Without brush and commutator, reliable and low maintenance. (2) The cooling technology with stator windings is more convenient. (3) It is easy to improve execution speed of the system with low inertia. (4) Suitable for running state with high speed and high torque. (5) Under the same power output condition, the volume and weight are both small. So the paper presents the design and experiment study of Electric Power Steering System based on Permanent Magnet AC Servo Motor. The result shows that the Permanent Magnet AC Servo Motor can be used to Electric Power Steering System, and it has large superiority and potential.

1.System Structure Design The Electric Power Steering Device is composed of mechanical steering device and electric power-assisted part. The electric power-assisted part includes motor, battery, sensor, electronic control unit and pencil of lines, and some have decelerating mechanism and electromagnetic clutch and so on(Fig.1.1).

Fig.1.1 the schematic diagram of The Electric Power Steering Device 1-torque sensor 2- decelerating mechanism 3- steering device 4- electromagnetic clutch 5-motor 6- electronic control unit Its working principle is as follows. when the driver turn steering wheel the torque sensor that connected with Steering Shaft under the steering wheel will turn the displacement signal of relative rotation angle of Steering Shaft linked by torsion bar spring into electrical signal and transfer to ECU 6, meanwhile Vehicle Speed signal is also transferred to ECU 6.Thus the ECU will determine the direction of rotation and magnitude of the torque, then the computer digital signal will be transferred into analog signal by D/A, input in electric current and control the circuit.

Current control circuit will come from the current value of the microcomputer with motor current command actual value is used in the comparison to create a poor value signal, and the signal to VI -

motor drive circuit, this circuit drive motor 5, and to provide complete control current motor, power steering function. Slow down institutions 2 and electromagnetic clutch respectively corresponding work completed four. This design features will be permanent magnet ac servo motor for electric power steering.

2.Implementation of Experimental Platform 1Interface Controller IO 2Multimeter 3Controller 4power 5Electric Power Steering System (EPS) 6computer Fig.1.2 the Experimental Platform pictures When a voltage input signal is input in the interface controller IO (such as 1), the magnitude of the input voltage (such as 2) can be directly read by a multimeter, so the magnitude of the input voltage can be controlled, and then send input voltage signal to the controller (such as 3), after the signal processing by internal circuit, the controller send the signal to the AC servo motor (such as 5), which will control the rotational speed of motor. Finally the signal will be saved in computer through USB (such as 6), and the curves such as revolution vs. time, and current vs. time can be drawn by software.

Fig. 1.3 acquisition program interface of rotation speed, current and time VI -

3.The experiment of energy conversion efficiency Table 1.1 the relationship between input voltage, input current and output current U(V) I1(A) I2(A) 0.7 1.36 1. 3.01 4.36 4. 6.25 8.61 8. 9.35 11.57 11. 11.52 14.74 14. Fig.1.4 Speed vs. current curve The efficiency of mechanical hydraulic power steering system is generally 0.6 ~ 0.7, while the energy conversion efficiency of electric power steering system can be approximately calculated by the formula1.1.

I2 R t 2 1. I1 R t Then input current and output current are inserted in the formula, the result shows that energy conversion efficiency of electric power steering system average at 0.930, which is far higher than that of mechanical hydraulic power steering system (0.6 ~ 0.7), so the of the former with higher energy conversion efficiency can save more energy.

Voltage-falling time curve when The torque sensor output voltage are -10V,-5V, 0V, 5V and 10V respectively, the response times from static to stable speed of the motor are shown in table 1.2.

Table 1.2 the Relationship between voltage and response time U(V) T(s) -10 0. -5 0. 5 0. 10 0. The Relationship between rotation speed and response time is shown in figure 1. VI -

Figure1.5 The curve of rotation speed and response time (input voltage, 5v) The curve shows that response time from static to stable speed of the motor is 0.027 s.

4.The output characteristics of torque sensor In Electric power steering system, the motor will produce motor torque corresponding to torque signal that acted on the steering wheel, so the output characteristics of torque sensor (the relationship between input torque of steering wheel and the output voltage) is very important to the performance of electric power steering system.

The lower part of the steering column is fixed, and the torque calibration plate is fixed on the steering wheel, then continual loading and unloading was done so as to test the relations of torque sensor output voltage and load torque (figure 1.6).

The output characteristic of sensor showed a good linear relationship, when the steering wheel is in the middle position, the output voltage of the sensor is 0 V;

and the output voltage are 10 V and 10 V respectively when the steering wheel turn to limit position of the left and right, the calibration coefficient of torque sensor is 20 Nm/V. according to the magnitude of the output voltage (= 0 V, 0 V or 0 V),the controller can judge whether it is turning and the direction.

Fig.1.6 the output characteristics of torque sensor 5. Conclusion The output characteristics of torque sensor indicate that the torque sensor output voltage of the analog signal is getting higher when drivers increase the torque of steering wheel.

(1)The efficiency of traditional mechanical hydraulic power steering system is low60%~70%;

While the efficiency of electric power steering system is high90% as the mechanical and electric motors are directly connected.

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(2)the reaction time quick electric power steering system than the traditional hydraulic steering system of fast response time, motor speed to stable from static response time can be less than 0. s.

(3) It is flexible to set the parameters according to the requirements.

Reference [1],,. [J]., 2003(2): 22 [1] Zhaoyan, Zhoubin, Zhang Zhongpu. Technology Development Tendency of Vehicle Steering System[J]. Automobile Research & Development, 2003(2): 22- [2],,. [J]., 2003(6): 3-7.

[2] Huang Liqin, Ji Xuewu, Chen Kuiyuan. Preliminary study on the control system of automotive electric power steering system [J]. Automobile Technology, 2003(6): 3-7.

[3] Yuji Kozaki, Goro Hirose, Shozo Sekiya and Yasuhiko Miyaura. Electric Power Steering(EPS)[R]. Motion & Control, 1999 (6): 9- [4] Sam-Sang You a, Seok-Kwon Jeong b. Controller design and analysis for automatic steering of passenger cars [J]. Mechatronics, 2002(12): 427- RESIDUAL QUANTITY CALCULATION METHOD OF EV BATTERY AND DRIVING DISTANCE PREDICTION BY OPEN-CIRCUIT VOLTAGE DECAY Li Hong-da[1] Liu Fengxian[2] [1]Equipment Engineering College, Shenyang Ligong University;

Shenyang 110159;

China ([2] Information Engineering College, Shenyang Ligong University;

Shenyang 110159;

China Introduction Residual quantity calculation method of EV battery is the significant basis of traction battery charging and discharging efficiency analysis and driving distance judgment. The SOC (state-of charge, the remaining power of the battery, namely the percentage of the total capacity) is a very important parameter in the process of operation [1-4]. Until now most EVs adapt such methods as energy accumulation detective, Ah quantitative law, load voltage detective and inner resistance detective. Considering the problems of complicated measuring process, long time and poor accuracy, the author presents a new method (open circuit voltage detective), and designs the hardware circuit of battery management system and realize it in the software. The OCV-SOC standardization curves of lithium ion battery based on the algorithm are analyzed, and according to the voltage value of lithium ion battery, and the SOC value and the remaining power of battery packs are calculated. Finally, all the influence factors are summarized, which can provide reliable basis for the estimation of the driving distance.

1. Design scheme of experimental platform The key of the design lies in the collection of open circuit voltage of every fuel cell, makes the micro-controller board, establishes the OCV-SOC curve using the collected information and then calculates the remaining power of the battery by the SOC of open voltage.

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Fig. 1-1 composition of the acquisition system The composition of a complete acquisition system is shown in figure 1-1, which takes C52RC chip as CPU, and uses ADC0804 chip to accomplish analog to digital conversion of battery voltage, finally sends serial data to the computer through the MAX232 chip. C52 chips have four bus-type I/O pins including P0to P3, P0 connects to control bit of analog switch, P1 connects to eight LED lamps, P2 connects AD chip and P3 connects to serial port chips. When the plate is connect with battery, the analog switch will control 3-bit switch, thus 3 batteries will be switched in turn and the AD chip inputs the data about every 2.5 S, and then switch another battery. And there is a simple filter in the program, through the queue of data structure, ten data of each battery have an accurate calculation. The times and interval for monitoring can be adjusted during the process, the real-time monitoring and signal acquisition of the battery is realized completely (figure 1-2).

Fig. 1-2 the acquisition system picture VI -

2. The experimental results and processing The Interface for experimental results Acquisition System is shown in figure 1.3:

Fig.1.3 the interface for experimental results acquisition system 2.1 calculating the average value of voltage acquisition 2.1.1 the conversion from hex system to decimal system According to the hex testing data (figure 4-4), the voltage of each cell is calculatedand hex data is converted into decimal data: (Cx / 256 * 5) C1=3. C2=3. C3=3. C4=3. C5=3. C6=3. C8=3. 2.1.2 The voltage extraction of each cell The voltage collection results of ten determinations for a battery areC3C2C4,C2C4C3C3C3C3C The voltage collection results of ten determinations for b battery areC3C2C5C4C2C5C4C3C5C VI -

The voltage collection results of ten determinations for c battery areC6C4C5C2C3C8C3C3C4C The voltage collection results of ten determinations for d battery areC3C3C3C3C3C5C4C3C5C The voltage collection results of ten determinations for e battery areC3C2C5C3C2C4C4C2C6C The voltage collection results of ten determinations for f battery areC2C3C3C3C1C6C4C4C6C The voltage collection results of ten determinations for g battery areC2C4C5C4C4C6C4C3C4C The voltage collection results of ten determinations for h battery areC2C4C4C4C1C6C3C3C4C The voltage collection results of ten determinations for i battery areC3C2C4C3C2C6C4C2C4C The voltage collection results of ten determinations for j battery areC3C4C3C3C2C5C4C1C5C 2.1.3 The average voltage calculation of every fuel cell Va=3.809+3.789+3.828+3.789+3.828+3.809+3.809+3.809+3.809+3.828/10=3.811v Vb=3.809+3.789+3.848+3.828+3.789+3.848+3.828+3.809+3.848+3.809/10=3.825v Vc=3.867+3.828+3.848+3.789+3.809+3.906+3.809+3.809+3.828+3.809/10=3.830v Vd=3.809+3.809+3.809+3.809+3.809+3.848+3.828+3.809+3.848+3.789/10=3.817v Ve=3.809+3.789+3.848+3.809+3.789+3.828+3.828+3.789+3.867+3.828/10=3.818v Vf=3.789+3.809+3.809+3.809+3.769+3.867+3.828+3.828+3.867+3.789/10=3.816v Vg=3.789+3.828+3.848+3.828+3.828+3.867+3.828+3.809+3.828+3.828/10=3.828v Vh=3.789+3.828+3.828+3.828+3.769+3.867+3.809+3.809+3.828+3.828/10=3.818v Vi=3.809+3.789+3.828+3.809+3.789+3.867+3.828+3.789+3.828+3.809/10=3.815v Vj=3.809+3.828+3.809+3.809+3.789+3.848+3.828+3.769+3.848+3.828/10=3.817v 2.1.4 The open voltage calculation of the battery According to the experimental data and the calculation, finally the voltage of the battery is given as follows:

U0 =Va+Vb+Vc+Vd+Ve+Vf+Vg+Vh+Vi+Vj/ =3.811+3.825+3.830+3.817+3.818+3.816+3.828+3.818+3.815+3.817/ =3.820v After sufficient rest, the internal voltage UOCV is equivalent to external voltage U0, so it can get the percentage of residual power of lithium ion battery (the lithium ion battery of the SOC) according to the revised OCV-SOC curve (Fig.5-7).In the experiment,The external voltage U0 of lithium ion battery 3.820 v, so the internal voltage UOCV is 3.820 v. and the SOC value is 19%, and the SOC value of lithium ion battery is finally obtained. The total capacity of lithium ion battery used in the experiment is 10 Ah, so the remaining power is 1.9 Ah, which provides important evidence for driving distance judgment.

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3 Error curve of open-circuit voltage decay The following curve 1 is obtained by calculation;

and curve 2 is an imaginary real voltage power curve of lithium ion battery.

4. 4. 4. 4.05 4.0 3. 3. 3.85 3. 3. 3.7 3.65 3. 3. 3. 3. 3.4 soc 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Fig.1.4 the errors correlation curve Conclusion The experiment shows that the open-circuit voltage decay is not only convenient, but also accurate especially in both early and late charging and discharging periods of the lithium ion battery.

[1],[J]. 2008,84:9-21.

[2],,[J]2009,7(2):31-54.

References [1] WangZhaoxiang, LiuSuqin. The principle and key technology of Lithium ion battery.

Science & technology information [J]. 2008, 2 (4) : 9- 21.

[2] JiaYingjiang, FuXiaozhong, charging methods of lithium battery. Science & technology information [J]. 2009, 7 (2) : 31-54.

[3] M.H.Li,T.Funaki,and T.Hikihara,a Study of Output Terminal Voltage Modeling for Redox Flow Battery Based on Charge and Discharge Experiments,2007 IEEE.

[4] Min Chen,Gabriel A.Rincon-Mora,Accurate Electrical Battery Model Capable of Predicting Runtime and I-V Performance, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION,VOL.21,NO.2,JUNE 2006.

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RELIABILITY INDEX ASSIGNMENT OF SMALL-CALIBER AMMUNITION AND ITS APPLICATION Jian Wang, M.E, Ass.prof., Dewu Huang, M.E, Prof.

Shenyang Ligong University, 110159, Shenyang China, Nanping Road, 6, Tel.86-24- E-mail: wj_sit@sina.com Abstract: Reliability index assignment is an important process in reliability design. On account of some engineering designers with less experience and irrationality for reliability index assignment, according to the characteristics of small-caliber artillery ammunition, the efficient principle and methods are introduced for adoption of the reliability index assignment in this paper. Taking the modification process in developing an aero demolition and incendiary bomb as an example, to analyze and improve tactical and technical indexes such as reliability and blasting power, the reliability index assignment and calculation were carried out by experts grading method for the reference to application.

Keywords: small-caliber ammunitionreliabilityindex assignment 0 Introduction The most prominent characteristics of small-caliber artillery, which are widely used in short range anti-craft weapons of all the arms services, are high shooting speed and high dense firepower.

When failing to intercept medium-long range incoming targets like aircraft and cruise missiles, small-caliber artillery fired dense bullets to form a fire net, achieving final destroy to the targets.

This kind of Short range defense system such as dense array or goalkeeper and so on is widely used in foreign countries. "Continental Shield"-2000 weapon system which can intercept combat aircraft effectively successfully developed in China [1], it consists of seven tube artilleries in diameter of 30mm and with shooting speed of 4000 shots per minute and the maximum range of 3000m.

The reliability problems need to be considered in the design of modern small-caliber ammunition. When the superiors assign research tasks, which usually include some technical index requirements such as power, precision and range, as well as its reliability. Reliability index assignment is an important part of the reliability design, which means assigning the reliability index, which is stipulated in the small-caliber ammunition design descriptions, to each subsystem, equipment, unit and component of this system reasonably according to certain assignment principles and methods[2]. The purpose is to make sure every designer clear about the reliability design requirements of products, allocate the reliability requirements of products to regulated levels, and ensure the realization of the reliability index by arranging structural design, materials application, processes and other specific technology parts.

Its difficult to assign the reliability index reasonably, because domestic small-caliber ammunition design and production department lack of necessary relevant data, and the reliability data of some components and common materials is incomplete.

According to the structure characteristics and domestic actual production of small-caliber ammunition, the practical principles and methods for the reliability index assignment are introduced in this paper, an example was taken to explain the application of these methods in the actual design.

1 Reliability Model Reliability model of products must be established previously in order to predict and assign the reliability indexes. Reliability model of typical system has four types: series system, parallel system, voting system and standby system [3].

The small-caliber ammunition is divided into two fixed types: fragmentation-blast incendiary bomb and penetrator, which are compose of primer, propellant, cartridge, projectile and fuse. There is no fuse in the penetrator, but the sabot is essential to the sub-caliber penetrator bullet.

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The whole system which belongs to series system fails to work as long as one subsystem malfunctions, the established reliability model is shown in figure 1.

projectile fuse propellant cartridge primer Fig.1 Reliability model of the small caliber ammunition For series system, if the reliability of each part is R1(t), R2(t), R3(t), R4(t)and R5(t), which are independent for each other, the reliability Rs(t) of the system is indicated as Rs (t ) Ri (t ) (1) i For parallel system, if the reliability of each part is R1(t), , Rn(t) which are independent for each other, the reliability Rs(t) of the system is indicated as n Rs (t ) 1 [1 Ri (t )] (2) i To guarantee the reliability indexes are completed according to the product design, the reliability indexes should be assigned to the above five subsystems and also need to be further disintegrated for each subsystem is composed of several units and components. As an example, a certain incendiary bomb which is a series system was taken, its reliability block diagram is illustrated in Fig.2, the reliability of the incendiary bomb is described in eq(3).

dynamite projectile body cartridge belt Fig.2 The reliability model of incendiary bomb R4 (t ) Ri (t ) (3) i where Ri(t) denotes the reliability index of each unit(including projectile body, cartridge belt and dynamite).

Its meaningful for conducting the design and manufacture process only if the reliability index is assigned to the last level. Similar ways can be adopted to analysis powder, propellant, cartridge, and fuse.

Reliability index assignment must consider current level of technology, under the limited conditions of costs, functions and research time, its unrealistic and meaningless only to enhance the reliability of subsystems or components. For the components with complex shape, manufacturing difficulties and high rejection rate, it also must be realistic to reduce the reliability requirements while ensuring the performance of products. Reliability index assignment is to solve the following inequality.

f ( R1 (t ), R2 (t ),, Rn (t )) Rs* (t ) (4) * where Rs (t) denotes the reliability index of the system;

R1(t), R2(t), , Rn(t) denote the reliability index of subsystem 1,2,n respectively;

f(Ri(t)) is the functional relationship of the reliability between subsystems and the whole system.

For simple series system, formula(4) becomes n Rs (t ) Ri (t ) Rs* (t ) (5) i If we want to make the solution of the inequality reasonable and realistic, the reliability indexes must be assigned according to certain principles and methods.

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2 Reliability index assignment 2.1 Reliability index assignment principle Small-caliber ammunition has been studied for many years so it has certain foundation and accumulation of mature components and experimental data, which provides reference for the reliability index assignment. In view of the importance of small-caliber ammunition and the advanced technology, new function requirements are raised every time at the research of new small caliber ammunition which updates from generation to generation, so its vital important to analyze and study technical indexes assigned by superior comprehensively.

At the research of new complex product like small-caliber intelligent ammunition, the rejection rate and the production cost increased if the reliability indexes were not assigned reasonably, so distributing the reliability index reasonably is very meaningful.

During the process of developing new products, the following principles should be observed:

(1) Innovation principle: Lower reliability index should be assigned to innovative or immature subsystems or units (such as powder, propellant, cartridge, bullet and fuse, etc.), while the performance requirements are ensured.

(2) Queuing principle: Lower reliability index should be assigned to more complicated subsystems or units;

higher reliability index should be assigned to very important products.

(3) Experiment principle: Assigning reliability index by relevant experiment data like the malfunction rate in the experiment of subsystems or units.

2.2 Reliability index assignment methods Principle is qualitative which has directional guiding effect, some more specific and operable assignment methods are developed in practice. Ammunition systems belong to irreparable products and most of them are series systems, so experts grading method, AGREE assignment method and minimum workload method are appropriate to use. The reliability indexes of each subsystem or component could be calculated by one method, then revised them according to the production fact and the specific conditions, compared them with known reliability indexes and adjusted, reassigned them until meeting the reliability requirements. The experts grading method was mainly introduced in this paper.

The characteristic of experts grading method is that scoring several factors by the experience of the experts and assigning reliability indexes to each subsystem according to the score. Depending on the actual situation of ammunition products, four factors are considered which are complexity, technology development level, environmental condition and functional requirement. The score of each factor ranges from 1 to 10.

Complexity: Grading by the number of components and the complexity of assembling, point is scored to the simplest one, while 10 points is scored to the most complex one.

Technology development level: Grading by current technical and maturity levels, 1 point is scored to the highest level, while 10 points is scored to the lowest level.

Environmental condition: Grading by the environmental conditions of subsystems, 10 points is scored to extremely harsh environmental condition, while 1 point is scored to the best environmental condition.

Functional requirement: Grading by the functional requirement and the task time, 10 points is scored to many functional requirements and long task time, while 1 point is scored to single functional requirement and short task time.

The failure rate i assigned to each subsystem is described as i Ci S * (6) VI -

where Ci is the grading coefficient of subsystem i;

S* is the failure rate index of regulated system.

Ci i (7) where i is the score of subsystem i;

is the score of the system.

i rij (8) j where rij is the score of factor j for subsystem i;

j=1,2,3,4 denote complexity, technology development level, environmental condition, functional requirement respectively.

The score of the whole system is the sum of each subsystems score, which is indicated as n i (9) i where n is the number of subsystem(including powder, propellant, cartridge, and fuze).

If the life span of this system satisfies exponential distribution, the relationship between reliability index and failure rate is R(t ) e t, we introduced mission failure rate F for the task reliability of ammunition products is not limited by the time range, F t,and R(t ) e F.

3 Application examples As an example, the improvement of a certain incendiary bomb with killing and exploding for aviation was taken, the reliability index assignment of small-caliber ammunition was mainly discussed. The structure is demonstrated in Fig.3, some tactical and technical performances are assumed as follows.

Initial speed 860 m/s Power 4040 cm Area of explosion Shockwave overpressure value 10~100 Mpa Burning temperature Diameter of the bomb 30 mm Length of the bomb 282~ Quality of the bomb 832 g Primer Electronic primer Type of loading dynamite / Quality A-IX-II/48.5 g Fragment flying speed 500~1500 m/s No reliability indexes of this ammunition were supposed, Fig.3 The incendiary bomb the reliability was predicated by the structure features and the 1-fuze;

2-bullet;

3-cartridge;

assumed performance indexes[4], the results were as follows: the reliability index of the system is Rs 0.89, the reliability indexes 4-propellant;

* 5-decopperingagent;

of power, propellant, cartridge, bullet, fuze are R1 0.99, 6-lead ring;

7-electric primer R2 0.988, R3 0.99, R4 0.975, R5 0.945 respectively.

Pretending that superior department assigned new task of improving the ammunition, the power was increased and the area of explosion became 5050 cm2 while the main performances and operation conditions remained unchanged, and the reliability index of the system was assigned Rs* =0.90.

VI -

Table 1 The score of each subsystem Technolog Environmenta Complexit Functional y l Serial y requirement Subsystem level ri 2 condition ri number ri1 ri 1 primer 4.2 3.4 6.8 5. 2 propellant 5.0 3.2 7.2 5. 3 cartridge 4.8 3.0 7.0 3. 4 projectile 8.6 7.6 6.2 8. 5 fuze 9.8 7.8 6.0 9. Table 2 The mission failure rate and the reliability index assignment Serial ri1 ri 2 ri 3 ri 4 Ci Fi Ri Subsystem i number 1 primer 4.2 3.4 6.8 5.0 485.52 0.0518 0.0055 0. 2 propellant 5.0 3.2 7.2 5.2 599.04 0.0639 0.0067 0. 3 cartridge 4.8 3.0 7.0 3.2 322.56 0.0344 0.0036 0. 4 projectile 8.6 7.6 6.2 8.8 3566.04 0.3803 0.0401 0. 5 fuze 9.8 7.8 6.0 9.6 4402.95 0.4696 0.0495 0. 9376.11 0. Analysis and Design: The power requirement and the reliability of new ammunition were both increased compared with the original ammunition. Suppose its impossible to use new dynamite, we had to increase the weight of the dynamite from 48.5g to 58.5g. In order to keep the appearance and the weight of the bomb unchanged, projectile steel with high strength was used and the thickness of the bomb was reduced unevenly, instead, the shape of the bomb should be calculated and redesigned to maintain the ballistic trajectory consisted with that of the original ammunition.

How to assign the reliability indexes for such a design scheme? Five experienced ammunition experts were hired to assign the reliability indexes through grading method, the average points are shown in table 1.The life span of the system satisfies exponential distribution R(t ) e F, so the mission failure rate assigned to the system is FS* * ln RS 0.1054.

The mission failure rate Fi and the reliability index Ri were calculated and assigned according to experts grading method, they are illustrated in table 2.

The reliability of the system is Rs Ri 0.90002 Rs (t ).

* i Existing primer, propellant, cartridge and fuze, which were basically mature components, were used in the new improvement scheme as indicated in table 2. The reliability of these components had been improved, while the reliability of the projectile, which affected the performance index directly, decreased for it was redesigned. However, the reliability of the whole system had been improved and met the requirements of the reliability index which means this assignment was reasonable and was helpful for the improvement of the projectile and power.

VI -

There are many influence factors for the failure of launching ammunition process and many mechanisms need to be made further study. The knowledge and experience of experts are focused at this method, some details are obscured and not all the processes are analyzed. However, this method is still effective and the results are also reasonable if the points scored by many experienced experts are synthesized.

4 Conclusion According to the characteristics of weapon equipment development, Reliability index assignment principles are confirmed as innovation principles, queuing principle and test principle.

Experts grading method, agree assignment method and minimum workload method are proposed in this paper. Taking the reliability index assignment of a new 30mm aero demolition and incendiary bullet as an example, the improvement processes of tactical and technical indexes are analyzed, the power of ammunition increased by improving the reliability indexes and making local change to the tactical and technical indexes, then the original reliability indexes are assigned and calculated again according to the reliability assignment principles and experts grading method. The results show that the reliability index assignment is reasonable and this method is of a reference for practical application.

References [1] Chunming Nie. "Continental Shield"-2000 ground-based short range anti-missile weapon system[J]. Ordnance Knowledge, 2010,290 (4A):38- [2] Shesheng Gao, Lingxia Zhang. Reliability theory and engineering application[M].

Beijing: National Defence Industry Press, [3] Zhengfa Zhou. Reliability Engineering [M]. Beijing: China aerospace press, [4] Shaofeng Nie. Ammunition reliability technology[M]. Beijing: Weapon Industry Press, [5] Jianjun Li. Research of launch device reliability index assignment method and Its application [J]. Ship Science and Technology, 2009, 31(5):102- -, ..., ., .., .

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Lutz O. Zur Theorie Keilscheiben Umsohlingungsgetribes. Konstruktion, 1960, 4.

N 7, S. 265-268.

5. Gerbert B.G. Force and slip behaviour in V-Belt drives. Acta Polytechnica Scandinavica. Mechanical Engineering Series. Helsinki. 1972. N 67. 101 p.

6. Bents D.J. Axial force and efficienty tests of fixed center variable speed belt drive // SAE Technical Paper Series. 1981. N 810103. p. 1-13.

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8. Peeken H., Erxleben S., Fischer F. Trumkraftverhalten der Riemengetriebe // Konstruktion 37.1985. H. 11. S. 441-448.

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